What is already known about this topic?
In 2014, in the United States, an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) was born every 15 minutes. Historically, NAS surveillance has depended on hospital discharge data, frequently with a time lag, limiting ability to rapidly direct public health resources.
What is added by this report?
Among six identified states with mandated NAS reporting laws during 2013–2017, NAS incidence could be quantified to inform programs and services. However, differences in reporting methods and case definitions might influence states’ abilities to monitor NAS incidence.
What are the implications for public health practice?
States considering requiring NAS case reporting for public health surveillance can benefit from understanding advantages and challenges of approaches used by states with mandated NAS reporting.