Research

Parliamentary Inquiry into Communication Campaigns Targeting Drug & Substance Abuse

Publication Date

Submission to Parliamentary Inquiry:

Illicit drug demand is at a critical juncture particularly at a time where the Australian criminal drug manufacturing and distribution networks are well established, sophisticated and tremendously successful operations embedded within interrelated global systems.

Conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes profesionales para la intervención breve en adicciones

Citation
Chainé, S. M., Felix-Romero, V., Palafox, G. P., & Martínez, J. L. V. (2019). Conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes profesionales para la intervención breve en adicciones. Revista inteRnacional de investigación en adicciones, 5(2), 8-20.

Resumen

Introducción: la capacitación continua y certificación de los profesionales de atención primaria de salud apoyan la implementación de intervenciones breves para abordar el uso de drogas.

Objetivo: validar los materiales de capacitación del “Curriculum Universal de Tratamiento para Profesionales de la Salud” mediante la evaluación de los conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes.

Alcohol Use in Times of the COVID-19 Virus

Citation
Rehm, J., Kilian, C., Ferreira‐Borges, C., Jernigan, D., Monteiro, M., Parry, C.D.H., Sanchez, Z.M. and Manthey, J. (2020), Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy. Drug Alcohol Rev.. doi:10.1111/dar.13074

During this global lockdown, most people have had to make major lifestyle changes in order to adhere to guidelines outlined by their respective governments.

The situation has forced people's behaviour and choices to change, and it is important to monitor these adjustments from a public health perspective.

Inhibition of Cardiac Sodium Currents by Toluene Exposure

Citation
Cruz, S. L., Orta‐Salazar, G., Gauthereau, M. Y., Millan‐Perez Peña, L., & Salinas‐Stefanón, E. M. (2003). Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. British journal of pharmacology, 140(4), 653-660.

Abstract

Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

Prenatal Exposure to Cannabis and Maternal and Child Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Gunn JKL, Rosales CB, Center KE, et al. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2016;6:e009986. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009986

Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Data sources: 7 electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2014. Studies that investigated the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes were included.

Drinking Patterns and the Distribution of Alcohol-Related Harms in Ireland: Evidence for the Prevention Paradox

Citation
O’Dwyer, C., Mongan, D., Millar, S.R. et al. Drinking patterns and the distribution of alcohol-related harms in Ireland: evidence for the prevention paradox. BMC Public Health 19, 1323 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7666-4
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Abstract

Background

According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms.

Cannabinoid Exposure in Rat Adolescence Reprograms the Initial Behavioral, Molecular, and Epigenetic Response to Cocaine

Citation
Scherma, M., Qvist, J. S., Asok, A., Shao-shan, C. H., Masia, P., Deidda, M., ... & Kandel, E. R. (2020). Cannabinoid exposure in rat adolescence reprograms the initial behavioral, molecular, and epigenetic response to cocaine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Significance

The endocannabinoid system has a modulatory role in brain reward and cognitive processes. It has been hypothesized that repeated interference with endocannabinoid signaling (e.g., through abuse of cannabis or synthetic cannabinoids) can remodel the adolescent brain and make it respond differently to more addictive substances, such as cocaine.

Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption

Citation
Easey, K. E., Timpson, N. J., & Munafò, M. R. Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
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Abstrait

Fond

Des recherches antérieures ont suggéré que l’exposition intra-utérine à l’alcool est associée à une variété de résultats indésirables chez la progéniture. Cependant, peu d’études ont étudié son association avec les désordres d’intériorisation de progéniture à la fin de l’adolescence.

Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study

Citation
Caspi A, Houts RM, Ambler A, et al. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e203221. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3221

Abstract

Efficacité à long terme et rentabilité de la thérapie cognitivo-comportementale par vidéoconférence pour les troubles obsessionnels-compulsifs, les troubles paniques et les troubles de l’anxiété sociale au Japon : suivi d’un an d’un essai à bras unique

Citation
Matsumoto K, Hamatani S, Nagai K, Sutoh C, Nakagawa A, Shimizu E. Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Videoconference-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan: One-Year Follow-Up of a Single-Arm Trial JMIR Ment Health 2020;7(4):e17157 DOI: 10.2196/17157
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Abstrait

Contexte : On sait que la thérapie cognitivo-comportementale individuelle (TCC) et la TCC (ICBT) sur Internet sans vidéoconférence ont une efficacité à long terme pour les troubles obsessionnels compulsifs (TOC), le trouble panique (PD) et le trouble d’anxiété sociale (TAS).

Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria

Citation
Delroy CS, Ifeanyichukwu AO, Rachel BA (2020) Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil 9:188. doi: 10.37532/jabtr.2020.9(1).188
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One area of substance misuse among adolescents that is currently a problem, and has not been fully understood in the Nigerian context is the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse. Thus, to inform policy actions for reducing cough syrup abuse among Nigerian adolescents, this study explored the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse in two Southwest states of Nigeria, where substance abuse is rampant.

Tobacco use in adolescents and young people in Mexico who do not study and do not work

Citation
Bustos Gamiño, M., Villatoro Velázquez, J. A., Oliva Robles, N., López Brambila, M. Á., Fregoso Ito, D. A., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2015). Consumo de tabaco en adolescentes y jóvenes de México que no estudian y no trabajan. Revista internacional de investigación en adicciones, 1(1), 33-40.

Summary

Introduction: Lack of study or work opportunities increases the vulnerability of young people, who in the face of instability can start using tobacco or other addictive substances.

Objective: Analyze what tobacco use is like among groups of adolescents and young people who only study, only work, study and work, or do not study or work.

Sociodemographic differences between inhalable users, other drug users and non-consumer teens in a Mexican student sample

Citation
Medina-Mora, M. E., Rafful, C., Velázquez, J. A. V., Robles, N. O., Gamiño, M. B., & Moreno, M. (2015). Diferencias sociodemográficas entre usuarios de inhalables, usuarios de otras drogas y adolescentes no consumidores en una muestra mexicana de estudiantes. Revista inteRnacional de investigación en adicciones, 1(1), 6-15.

Summary

Introduction: Inhalables such as glue, thinner and other petroleum derivatives are one of the most widely used groups of substances among the Mexican adolescent population. Recent studies have shown that, along with marijuana, inhalables are the type of drug of choice for the young population.

The Impact of COPD and Smoking History on the Severity of Covid‐19: A Systemic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Citation
Source: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25889
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Abstract

Aims

Comorbidities are associated with the severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid‐19). This meta‐analysis aimed to explore the risk of severe Covid‐19 in patients with pre‐existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ongoing smoking history.

Exploring the Experiences of Social Service Providers regarding the Implementation of the National Drug Master Plan (2013-2017)

Citation
South African National Drug Master Plan (2013-2017)- Social Work Evaluative Study
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This research study entails an analysis and evaluation of the South African National Drug Master Plan for 2013-2017 through a Social Work perspective in the context of substance use disorder policy. It was done in fulfillment of requirements for a Masters Degree in Social Work with specialization in substance use disorders.

Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms among People with Regular or Dependent Use of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Bahji A, Stephenson C, Tyo R, Hawken ER, Seitz DP. Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms Among People With Regular or Dependent Use of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e202370. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.2370
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Abstract

Importance: Cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS)—a diagnostic indicator of cannabis use disorder—commonly occurs on cessation of heavy and prolonged cannabis use. To date, the prevalence of CWS syndrome has not been well described, nor have the factors potentially associated with CWS.

Factors Associated with Mental Health Outcomes among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019

Citation
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
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Abstract

Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed.

Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China.

COVID-19 and Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations for a Comprehensive Healthcare Response

Citation
Farhoudian, A., Baldacchino, A., Clark, N., Gerra, G., Ekhtiari, H., & Dom, G., et al. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations for a Comprehensive Healthcare Response. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 11(2), 129-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.11.covid19.1
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The coronavirus pandemic has become a sudden public health issue that has affected all communities around the world. Everyone has had to make adjustments to their lifestyles in a united effort to slow the spread of disease and prevent as many casualties as possible.

Interdependence of Risk and Protective Factors on Early Initiation of Substance Use

Citation
Trujillo, C. A., Obando, D., & Trujillo, A. (2019). An examination of the association between early initiation of substance use and interrelated multilevel risk and protective factors among adolescents. PLoS ONE 14(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225384
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The most important predictor for SUD later in life is early initiation of substance use during adolescence, thus prevention programs must target youth in delaying the onset of age of initiation. However, the interaction between both risk and protective factors on early initiation of substance use is not well studied.

The Self-Care Matrix: A Unifying Framework for Self-Care

Citation
El-Osta, A., Webber, D., Gnani, S., Banarsee, R., Mummery, D., Majeed, A., & Smith, P. (2019). The Self-Care Matrix: A unifying framework for self-care.-Selfcare Journal. SelfCare Journal.

We are seeing a global rise in long-term noncommunicable diseases, linked with our inability to protect our own wellbeing.

The World Health Organization defines self-care as: 

"the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote, maintain health, prevent disease and to cope with illness with or without the support of a health care provider."

Self‐Care for the Prevention and Management of Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals

Citation
Riegel, B., Moser, D. K., Buck, H. G., Dickson, V. V., Dunbar, S. B., Lee, C. S., ... & Webber, D. E. (2017). Self‐care for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and stroke: A scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9), e006997.

Due to the nature of their work, health care professionals frequently experience long hours, stress, burnout and compassion fatigue. If left unaddressed, these issues can lead to increased risks of mental and physical health problems.

One of the most effective ways of reducing stress-related issues is through practising self-care. 

Résultats en santé mentale chez les travailleurs de la santé exposés à la maladie coronaviruse 2019

Citation
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Pour les personnes qui travaillent en première ligne pendant la pandémie de coronavirus, le stress et la pression de la situation peuvent avoir un impact négatif dramatique sur le bien-être mental.

Comprendre la résilience

Citation
Wu, G., Feder, A., Cohen, H., Kim, J. J., Calderon, S., Charney, D. S., & Mathé, A. A. (2013). Understanding resilience. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 7, 10.

Bien qu’il s’agit d’un terme qui est fréquemment utilisé, comprendre ce que signifie être résilient ou développer la résilience n’est pas toujours simple.

Dans un article publié dans Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience, les chercheurs interprètent la résilience comme :

Adolescent Brain Development, Substance Use, and Psychotherapeutic Change

Citation
Wetherill, R., & Tapert, S. F. (2013). Adolescent brain development, substance use, and psychotherapeutic change. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(2), 393.

Adolescence involves dramatic biologic, psychological, and behavioural changes.

Adolescents respond, learn and explore their environment, forming new relationships and further developing their identity.

It is often a time where individuals are more likely to participate in risky behaviour, frequently influenced by substance use. Substance use among adolescents ranges from experimentation to severe substance use disorders.

Symptômes psychiatriques causés par les constituants du cannabis : un examen systématique et une méta-analyse

Citation
Hindley, G., Beck, K., Borgan, F., Ginestet, C. E., McCutcheon, R., Kleinloog, D., ... & Howes, O. D. (2020). Psychiatric symptoms caused by cannabis constituents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry.
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Résumé

Fond

Environ 188 millions de personnes consomment du cannabis chaque année dans le monde, et il a récemment été légalisé dans 11 États américains, le Canada et l’Uruguay à des fins récréatives. Le risque d’une consommation accrue de cannabis souligne la nécessité de mieux comprendre ses risques, y compris l’induction aigue de symptômes psychotiques et autres symptômes psychiatriques.

Association des opioïdes prescrits aux membres de la famille avec une surdose d’opioïdes chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes

Citation
Nguyen AP, Glanz JM, Narwaney KJ, Binswanger IA. Association of Opioids Prescribed to Family Members With Opioid Overdose Among Adolescents and Young Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201018. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1018
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Abstrait

Importance: Les membres de la famille sont cités comme une source commune d’opioïdes d’ordonnance utilisés pour des raisons non médicamenttiques. Cependant, le risque de surdosage associé à l’exposition aux opioïdes prescrits aux membres de la famille chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes n’est pas bien établi.

Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019

Citation
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
Publication Date

Abstract

Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed.

Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China.

Validation of an Electronic Health Record–Based Suicide Risk Prediction Modeling Approach Across Multiple Health Care Systems

Citation
Barak-Corren Y, Castro VM, Nock MK, et al. Validation of an Electronic Health Record–Based Suicide Risk Prediction Modeling Approach Across Multiple Health Care Systems. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201262. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1262
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Key Points

Question: Can a process for training machine-learning algorithms based on electronic health records identify individuals at increased risk of suicide attempts across independent health care systems?

The Effectiveness of a Guided Internet-Based Tool for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Pregnancy (MamaKits Online): Randomized Controlled Trial

Citation
Heller HM, Hoogendoorn AW, Honig A, Broekman BF, van Straten A. The Effectiveness of a Guided Internet-Based Tool for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Pregnancy (MamaKits Online): Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res 2020;22(3):e15172
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Conclusions: Our study did show a significant reduction in affective symptoms in both groups, but the differences in reduction of affective symptoms between the intervention and control groups were not significant. There were also no differences in perinatal child outcomes.