Research

Alcohol and illicit drug use among young people living with HIV compared to their uninfected peers from the Kenyan coast: prevalence and risk indicators

Citation
Moses K. Nyongesa, Paul Mwangi, Michael Kinuthia, Amin S. Hassan, Hans M. Koot, Pim Cuijpers, Charles R. J. C. Newton & Amina Abubakar
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There is a scarcity of research on drug use patterns among HIV-positive young individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa (YLWH). To fill the gap, the following was set out:

Perspectives of healthcare providers, service users, and family members about mental illness stigma in primary care settings: A multi-site qualitative study of seven countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe

Citation
Mirja Koschorke,Nathalie Oexle,Uta Ouali,Anish V. Cherian,Vayankarappadam Deepika,Gurucharan Bhaskar Mendon,Dristy Gurung,Lucie Kondratova,Matyas Muller,Mariangela Lanfredi,Antonio Lasalvia,Andrea Bodrogi,Anna Nyulászi,Mario Tomasini,Rabih El Chammay,Racha Abi Hana,Yosra Zgueb,Fethi Nacef,Eva Heim,Anaïs Aeschlimann,Sally Souraya,Maria Milenova,Nadja van Ginneken,Graham Thornicroft,Brandon A. Kohrt
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Stigma among healthcare providers is a barrier to the effective delivery of mental health services in primary care. Few studies have been conducted in primary care settings comparing the attitudes of healthcare providers and experiences of people with mental illness who are service users in those facilities. Such research is necessary across diverse global settings to characterize stigma and inform effective stigma reduction.

Strategies Adopted by Addiction Facilities during the Coronavirus Pandemic to Support Treatment for Individuals in Recovery or Struggling with a Substance Use Disorder: A Scoping Review

Citation
de Vargas, D.; Pereira, C.F.; Volpato, R.J.; Lima, A.V.C.; da Silva Ferreira, R.; de Oliveira, S.R.; Aguilar, T.F. Strategies Adopted by Addiction Facilities during the Coronavirus Pandemic to Support Treatment for Individuals in Recovery or Struggling with a Substance Use Disorder: A Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212094
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This review aimed to identify and synthesize strategies and actions adopted by addiction facilities to support and maintain treatment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A scoping review was conducted using the following information sources: Virtual Health Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature.

Clinical Utility of Assessing Changes of Personality Functioning During Substance Misuse Treatment

Citation
Papamalis FE. Clinical Utility of Assessing Changes of Personality Functioning During Substance Misuse Treatment. Subst Abuse. 2020 Jul 3;14:1178221820931101. doi: 10.1177/1178221820931101. PMID: 32669847; PMCID: PMC7336825.
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Abstract

Dimensional models for classifying personality have received extensive empirical support in the treatment of substance misuse. However, we do not currently understand whether and which dimensions of personality functioning are amenable to change.

Examining the Relationship of Personality Functioning and Treatment Completion in Substance Misuse Treatment

Citation
Papamalis FE. Examining the Relationship of Personality Functioning and Treatment Completion in Substance Misuse Treatment. Subst Abuse. 2020 Oct 6;14:1178221820951777. doi: 10.1177/1178221820951777. PMID: 33088177; PMCID: PMC7543119.
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Abstract

Background: Treatment retention is a major factor contributing to favourable outcome in the treatment of substance misuse, but the literature remains very limited. Despite evidence of the association of personality with drug use experimentation and relapse, surprisingly little is known about its role in the treatment process.

The Role of Personality Functioning on Early Drop out in Outpatient Substance Misuse Treatment

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Papamalis FE, Dritsas I, Knight K. The Role of Personality Functioning on Early Drop out in Outpatient Substance Misuse Treatment. Subst Use Misuse. 2021;56(8):1119-1136. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2021.1908358. Epub 2021 Apr 21. PMID: 33881361.
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Abstract

Urdu translation and psychometric properties of WHO-Five Wellbeing Index among male patients with substance use disorders in Pakistan

Citation
Shahzad, S., Jones, H., Begum, N., Zia, A. (2021). Urdu Translation and Adaptation of WHO-5 Wellbeing Index in patients with Substance Use Disorder in Pakistan. Journal of Substance Use, 26(6), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/14659891.2021.200633
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Abstract

Objective

The present study aims to translate and adapt the WHO-Five Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) into the Urdu language and then determine its psychometric properties.

Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Substance Use Among Canadian Medical Students

Citation
Bahji A, Danilewitz M, Guerin E, Maser B, Frank E. Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Substance Use Among Canadian Medical Students. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2133994. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.33994
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To the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the largest and most comprehensive studies of medical student substance use. Canadian medical students reported similar rates of alcohol use, higher rates of cannabis use, and lower rates of tobacco and NPS use than Canadian postsecondary students. These findings matter because medical students' substance use may indicate their ability to cope with stress and their risk of burnout, and their pati

Alcohol Availability, Use, and Harms Among adolescents in Three Mexican Cities.

Citation
Ringwalt, C. L., Paschall, M. J., Grube, J. W., Miller, T. R., Warren, K. R., Gidi, V., Fisher, D. A., & Goldberg, A. (2020). Alcohol Availability, Use, and Harms Among Adolescents in Three Mexican Cities. Journal of Drug Education, 49(1–2), 55–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047237920929331

Alcohol consumption contributes to 3 million deaths each year globally as well as to the disabilities and poor health of millions of people. 

Alcohol use among adolescents can be harmful to neurodevelopment and has been linked to an increased risk of suicide ideation, depression, and risky sexual behaviour.

Conocimiento de enfermería sobre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y su prevención

Citation
Camacho-Rodríguez, D., & González-Ruíz, G. (2015). Conocimiento de enfermería sobre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y su prevención. Duazary, 12(2), 93-99.
Resumen

Identificar el nivel de conocimientos de los profesionales de Enfermería de una Institución de salud de primer nivel de atención sobre el consumo sustancias psicoactivas y su prevención. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que participaron los profesionales de Enfermería de una Institución prestadora de servicios de salud pública de primer nivel de atención de Santa Marta Colombia.

La educación de enfermería y las adicciones. Una revisión de la literatura

Citation
García-Cardona, M., & Ramírez-Elías, A. (2010). La educación de enfermería y las adicciones. Una revisión de la literatura. Revista de Enfermería del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social [Internet], 18(1), 35-42.
Resumen

Conocer el estado del arte, es estar al tanto de los antecedentes y no repetir lo que ya se ha dicho antes, y utilizarlo como punto de partida. Averiguar el desarrollo de la temática que nos interesa no es tarea fácil. Hoy la revisión de literatura se hace desde cualquier lugar. Tenemos acceso a catálogos de publicaciones, a bases de datos automatizados.

Actitudes hacia el consumo, búsqueda de sensaciones y consumo de alcohol. Modelo de mediación parcial en adolescentes ecuatorianos

Citation
Herrera, R. M., Lascano, M. M., Reyes, C., & Rodríguez, T. D. (2021). Actitudes hacia el consumo, búsqueda de sensaciones y consumo de alcohol. Modelo de mediación parcial en adolescentes ecuatorianos. Revista española de drogodependencias, (46), 58-71.
Resumen

Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de mediación de la búsqueda de sensaciones en la relación entre actitudes al consumo y el consumo de alcohol en una muestra de adolescentes del Ecuador. Método: Estudio descriptivo predictor y de mediación con el uso de la Escala de Actitudes al consumo, el Cuestionario Breve de Búsqueda de Sensaciones y la Prueba de Identificación de Trastornos Relacionados con el Consumo de Alcohol.

Cannabis and tobacco use prior to pregnancy and subsequent offspring birth outcomes: a 20-year intergenerational prospective cohort study

Citation
Hines, L.A., Spry, E.A., Moreno-Betancur, M. et al. Cannabis and tobacco use prior to pregnancy and subsequent offspring birth outcomes: a 20-year intergenerational prospective cohort study. Sci Rep 11, 16826 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95460-2
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Abstract

There is increasing evidence that the life-course origins of health and development begin before conception. We examined associations between timing and frequency of preconception cannabis and tobacco use and next generation preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age.

Work Environment Factors and Prevention of Opioid-Related Deaths

Citation
William S. Shaw, Cora Roelofs, and Laura Punnett, 2020: Work Environment Factors and Prevention of Opioid-Related Deaths American Journal of Public Health 110, 1235_1241, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305716
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Opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid overdose deaths (OODs) are prevalent among US workers, but work-related factors have not received adequate attention as either risk factors or opportunities for OOD prevention. Higher prevalence of OOD in those with heavy physical jobs, more precarious work, and limited health care benefits suggest work environment and organizational factors may predispose workers to the development of OUD.

Addiction treatment in India: Legal, ethical and professional concerns reported in the media

Citation
Joseph S, Hemalatha K. Addiction treatment in India: Legal, ethical and professional concerns reported in the media. Indian J Med Ethics. 2021 Oct-Dec;VI(4):306-313. doi: 10.20529/IJME.2021.030. PMID: 34666979.
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Abstract: As per the Magnitude of Substance Use in India 2019 survey report, over 57 million of the Indian population is in need of professional help for alcohol use disorders and around 7.7 million for opioid use disorders.

Mechanisms and mediators of addiction recovery

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"Addiction recovery is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process of change on multiple life domains, and in substance use patterns in particular."

In this special issue of Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, researchers from around the world explore the range of mediators and mechanisms that play a role in an individuals recovery trajectory.

Articles

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Behaviour and Preference Changes in Relation to Selected Anabolic Androgenic Substances and Steroids: A Research Study

Citation
Bejtkovský, J., & Snopek, P. (2021). Adiktologie, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.35198/01-2021-002-0002
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BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2 or COVID-19) broke out in China. The virus spread rapidly throughout the country and around the globe. In an effort to prevent the spread of the virus, all countries significantly limited social interaction, which also curbed all sports, social, and leisure activities.

Analysis of Tobacco Industry Marketing and Media Communication in Response to the Menthol Cigarette Ban in the Czech Republic in 2020

Citation
Kulhánek, A., Hejlová, D. Slíž, M., & Baptistová, A. (2021). Adiktologie, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.35198/01-2021-002-0001
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BACKGROUND: Characterising flavours are an important marketing tool for the tobacco industry. Following the European Tobacco Products Directive, the sales of menthol cigarettes in all EU Member States, including the Czech Republic, were banned as of May 20, 2020.

Biographic Burden and Initiation into the Use of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants from the Perspective of Users: The Qualitative Arm of the ATTUNE Research Study in the Czech Republic

Citation
Petruželka, B., Barták, B., & Laštovková, J. (2021). Adiktologie, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.35198/01-2020-002-0002
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BACKGROUND: The Czech Republic has a long tradition of methamphetamine use. Less is known about the circumstances of initiation into its use at the level of individual users. The aim of the research was to analyse the biographic burden prior to initiation into the use of amphetamines. Another aim was to describe initiation into the use of amphetamines from the perspective of users in various groups.

په امریکا کې د نشه یی توکو سره د ملی استازی په منځ کې د روغتیایی لګښتونو او د منابعو د ګټه پورته کولو په برخه کې د روغتیایی لګښتونو او د منابعو د ګټه اخیستو په برخه کې : د دوه زره اته لسم کال څخه تر ۲۰۱۷ کال پورې یوه پرله پوری څیړنه

Citation
Bounthavong, M., Suh, K., Li, M. et al. Trends in healthcare expenditures and resource utilization among a nationally representative population with opioids in the United States: a serial cross-sectional study, 2008 to 2017. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 80 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00415-5
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په دې وروستیو څو لسیزو کې د عامې روغتیا یو جدی اندیښنه په امریکا کې د ایپیوپیډیا ناروغی ده. په ۲۰۱۸ کال کې ۹،۹ میلیونه امریکایان چې عمرونه یې ۱۲ کلن وو او د نسخو د درد په دوا کې یې ناوړه ګټه پورته کړې وه، او په نږدې توګه ۲ میلیونه امریکایان د نشه یی توکو د استعمال د بې نظمۍ په ناروغۍ کې تشخیص شول.

Cannabis and the Gateway Drug Theory: Correlation or Causation – Where does the Evidence Point?

Citation
Dalgarno Institute
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Cannabis and the Gateway Drug Theory: Correlation or Causation – Where does the Evidence Point? (Dalgarno Institute Research Report, October 2021)
This Research Report looks a the ever oscillating debate around Cannabis and the 'Gateway Drug Theory'. 

Impact of an adult family member’s problematic substance use on family life

Citation
Sari Kaarina Lindeman, Kristine Berg Titlestad, Lennart Lorås & Terese Bondas (2021) An unknown invisible intrusion. Impact of an adult family member’s problematic substance use on family life: a meta-ethnography, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2021.1943316

Problematic substance use can be a significant cause of stress for family members of the person using substances. This review, published in the journal Drug: Education, Prevention and Policy, examines current research in order to explore the question 'What is the impact of an adult family member's problematic substance use for family life?'

Following a systematic search, the researchers analysed the data of 15 qualitative studies.

“Hidden gem” from the ’70s suggests counsellors generate the outcomes they expect. An Effectiveness Bank analysis

Citation
Alcohol Health & Research World: 1977, 1, p. 16-22.
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The Effectiveness Bank has stopped routinely issuing research analyses, but we couldn’t leave this gem from the ’70s figuratively gathering dust on the shelves of the British Library. Belied by an under-stated presentation, its practice implications are profound for treatment staff supporting clients with an apparently unpromising prognosis.

Assessing the Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the UK

Citation
McCarthy R, Mukherjee RAS, Fleming KM, Green J, Clayton Smith J, Price AD, Allely CS, Cook PA. 2021. Assessing the Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): A cross-sectional active case ascertainment study in schools in Greater Manchester, UK. Acoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research:

In a new study, led by a team at the University of Salford, evidence has been found to suggest fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant issue among the population, likely to be as common as autism, despite being rarely diagnosed.

The project, which investigated the number of primary school children affected by FASD in Greater Manchester, is the first of its kind in the UK.

Are former heavy drinkers in the UK less likely to identify as being in recovery compared to those in the USA? A pilot test

Citation
Cunningham, J.A., Godinho, A. Are former heavy drinkers in the UK less likely to identify as being in recovery compared to those in the USA? A pilot test. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 74 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00412-8
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The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) movement created the term "in recovery" to express the continuing requirement for vigilance in order to sustain sobriety (which includes abstinence from alcohol intake) and avoid a return to dangerous drinking. This term, or identity, may be adopted by someone who considers themselves to be in recovery for the rest of their lives.

Research led by people who use drugs: centering the expertise of lived experience

Citation
Salazar, Z.R., Vincent, L., Figgatt, M.C. et al. Research led by people who use drugs: centering the expertise of lived experience. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 70 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00406-6
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Despite a long history of successful, community-led harm reduction programs and rising health inequalities suffered by PWUD, research collaborations between PWUD and researchers remain generally ignored. PWUDs are crucial in identifying developing concerns in the drug industry, as well as related health behaviors and consequences.

Psychosocial Interventions to Improve Psychological, Social and Physical Wellbeing in Family Members Affected by an Adult Relative’s Substance Use: A Systematic Search and Review of the Evidence

Citation
McGovern, R., Smart, D., Alderson, H., Araújo-Soares, V., Brown, J., Buykx, P., Evans, V., Fleming, K., Hickman, M., Macleod, J., Meier, P., & Kaner, E. (2021). Psychosocial Interventions to Improve Psychological, Social and Physical Wellbeing in Family Members Affected by an Adult Relative's Substance Use: A Systematic Search and Review of the Evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4), 1793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041793
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The use of alcohol and drugs is a significant public health concern and is prevalent in families. Over 100 million people are thought to be affected by a close relative's substance use, with many experiencing negative health and social consequences. Additional associated stressors, such as interpersonal conflict, financial issues, the burden of care, and family conflict, frequently increase the multi-dimensional impact of substance use.