Research

Effects of Long‐Term Alcohol Drinking on the Dopamine D2 Receptor: Gene Expression and Heteroreceptor Complexes in the Striatum in Rats

Citation
Feltmann, K., Borroto-Escuela, D. O., Rüegg, J., Pinton, L., de Oliveira Sergio, T., Narváez, M., Jimenez-Beristain, A., Ekström, T. J., Fuxe, K., … Steensland, P. (2018). Effects of Long-Term Alcohol Drinking on the Dopamine D2 Receptor: Gene Expression and Heteroreceptor Complexes in the Striatum in Rats. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 42(2), 338-351.
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Abstract

Background

Reduced dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ligand binding has repeatedly been demonstrated in the striatum of humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The attenuated D2R binding has been suggested to reflect a reduced D2R density, which in turn has been proposed to drive craving and relapse.

Effectiveness Bank Analysis: Patients Who Expect the Best Are More Likely to Get It

Citation
Psychotherapy: 2018, 55(4), p. 373-485.
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How much a patient expects treatment will help is not just an empty prediction but a force in making treatment help, is the strong possibility raised by a review commissioned by an American Psychological Association task force.

Pesquisa explicita relação entre álcool, drogas e violência

Citation
An epidemiological study on the association between acute substance use and injury, de G. Andreuccetti, C.J. Cherpitel, H.B. Carvalho, V. Leyton, I.D. Miziara, D.R. Munoz, A.L. Reingold e N.P. Lemos,
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Já é de se esperar que álcool e outras drogas levem a pessoa a um caminho de violência, porém recentemente isso foi comprovado através de uma pesquisa de um grupo da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Eles publicaram resultados de uma pesquisa a respeito da associação entre o consumo de álcool e drogas com a ocorrência de mortes violentas.

Research Explicit Relationship between Alcohol, Drugs and Violence

Citation
An epidemiological study on the association between acute substance use and injury, de G. Andreuccetti, C.J. Cherpitel, H.B. Carvalho, V. Leyton, I.D. Miziara, D.R. Munoz, A.L. Reingold e N.P. Lemos
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It is already expected that alcohol and other drugs lead a person to a path of violence, but recently this was proven through a study of a group of the University of São Paulo Medical School (USP). They published results of a survey on the association between alcohol and drug use with the occurrence of violent deaths. The work puts in numbers the data of this relation, in this case, in the city of São Paulo.

Sustained Opioid Antagonism Modulates Striatal Sensitivity to Baby Schema in Opioid Use Disorder

Citation
Wang, A. L., Lowen, S. B., Elman, I., Shi, Z., Fairchild, V. P., Bouril, A., ... & Langleben, D. D. (2018). Sustained opioid antagonism modulates striatal sensitivity to baby schema in opioid use disorder. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 85, 70-77.
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Highlights

  • First fMRI study on the effects of naltrexone on social motivation in opioid-addicted patients.
  • Extended release naltrexone modulates brain response to the level of cuteness in baby portraits.
  • Reduction in craving for opioids is correlated with brain response to baby schema.

Abstract

Background

Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural

Duration of Therapy – Does It Matter?

Citation
Schmidt, L. K., Bojesen, A. B., Nielsen, A. S., & Andersen, K. (2018). Duration of therapy–Does it matter?: A systematic review and meta-regression of the duration of psychosocial treatments for alcohol use disorder. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 84, 57-67.
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Highlights

  • Planned duration of therapy not associated with outcome in use of alcohol
  • Actual attended sessions of therapy not associated with outcome in use of alcohol
  • Frequency of research assessments significantly associated with use of alcohol
  • Emphasizes the importance of checkups for people with alcohol use disorder

Abstract

Background

The recommendations in clini

Self‐Medication with Alcohol or Drugs for Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Citation
Turner, S., Mota, N., Bolton, J., & Sareen, J. (2018). Self‐medication with alcohol or drugs for mood and anxiety disorders: A narrative review of the epidemiological literature. Depression and anxiety, 35(9), 851-860.
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Substance use is one way that people deal with the difficult symptoms present in mood and anxiety disorders.

Comorbid Opioid Use is Undertreated among Forensic Patients with Schizophrenia

Citation
Kivimies, K., Repo-Tiihonen, E., Kautiainen, H., & Tiihonen, J. (2018). Comorbid opioid use is undertreated among forensic patients with schizophrenia. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 13(1), 39.
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Abstract

Background

Substance use disorders are associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. There is no specific treatment for amphetamine or cannabis use disorder, but methadone and buprenorphine are used as replacement therapy in the treatment of opioid dependence.

Exploring the Public Stigma of Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Nieweglowski, K., Corrigan, P. W., Tyas, T., Tooley, A., Dubke, R., Lara, J., ... & Addiction Stigma Research Team. (2018). Exploring the public stigma of substance use disorder through community-based participatory research. Addiction Research & Theory, 26(4), 323-329.
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Illicit drug use disorder is one of the most stigmatised health conditions in the world.

Older Adults in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders: Service Utilisation, Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes

Citation
Dauber, H., Pogarell, O., Kraus, L., & Braun, B. (2018). Older adults in treatment for alcohol use disorders: service utilisation, patient characteristics and treatment outcomes. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 13(1), 40.
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Abstract

Background

In western countries demographic changes are leading to an ageing society. Consequently, the number of older adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) will rise and the demand of treatment is likely to increase.

Evaluation of Amphetamine-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Clinical Outcomes and Costs in the United States

Citation
Winkelman TNA, Admon LK, Jennings L, Shippee ND, Richardson CR, Bart G. Evaluation of Amphetamine-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Clinical Outcomes and Costs in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(6):e183758. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3758
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Key Points

Question: What are the current trends in frequency and costs of amphetamine-related hospitalizations in the United States?

Effect of a Primary Care–Based Psychological Intervention on Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Zimbabwe

Citation
Chibanda D, Weiss HA, Verhey R, et al. Effect of a Primary Care–Based Psychological Intervention on Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in ZimbabweA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;316(24):2618–2626. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19102
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Key Points

Question: Does a lay health worker–delivered psychological intervention improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in Zimbabwe?

Qualitative Cross-Country Comparison of Whether, When and How People Diagnosed with Lung Cancer Talk about Cigarette Smoking in Narrative Interviews

Citation
Hajdarevic S, Rasmussen BH, Overgaard Hasle TL, et al Qualitative cross-country comparison of whether, when and how people diagnosed with lung cancer talk about cigarette smoking in narrative interviews BMJ Open 2018;8:e023934. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023934
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Abstract

Objectives: To compare and examine whether, when and how patients with lung cancer in three countries, with different survival rates, talk about cigarette smoking and its relationship with help-seeking.

Design: A qualitative cross-country comparison with analysis of narrative interviews.

Stopping Cannabis Use Is Associated with Improved Memory

Citation
Schuster, R. M., Gilman, J., Schoenfeld, D., Evenden, J., Hareli, M., Ulysse, C., ... & Evins, A. E. (2018). One Month of Cannabis Abstinence in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Improved Memory. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79(6), 0-0.
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The controversial subject of cannabis legalisation has led to the increased urgency in understanding the full health and social implications of the drug use. Cannabis use is particularly prevalent amongst adolescence - a period of time where young people are going through significant neural development.

History of Child Sexual Abuse among Women Consuming Illicit Substances in Mexico City

Citation
Mendoza-Meléndez, M. Á., Cepeda, A., Frankeberger, J., López-Macario, M., & Valdez, A. (2018). History of child sexual abuse among women consuming illicit substances in Mexico City. Journal of substance use, 23(5), 520-527.
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Abstract

Introduction:

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a pervasive problem that has been linked to numerous developmental, social, health, and substance use consequences. Nevertheless, the relationship between CSA and the consumption of psychoactive substances has not been adequately studied in Mexico.

Integrated Mapping of Local Mental Health Systems in Central Chile

Citation
Salinas-Perez JA, Salvador-Carulla L, Saldivia S, Grandon P, Minoletti A, Romero Lopez-Alberca C. Integrated mapping of local mental health systems in Central Chile. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e144. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.144
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[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the availability of local mental health (MH) services in small MH catchment areas in Central Chile, using a bottom-up approach. Methods.

The Importance of Social Interaction in Preventing Addictive Behaviour

Citation
Venniro, M., Zhang, M., Caprioli, D., Hoots, J. K., Golden, S. A., Heins, C., ... & Shaham, Y. (2018). Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models. Nature neuroscience, 1.
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Negative social interactions and isolation have been linked with heightened risk of drug self-administration and relapse, whereas positive social interactions can act as a protective factor against substance abuse.

The Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Alcohol and Drug Use in 195 Countries and Territories, 1990–2016

Citation
Degenhardt, Louisa & Charlson, Fiona & Ferrari, Alize & Santomauro, Damian & Erskine, Holly & Mantilla-Herrara, Ana & Whiteford, Harvey & Leung, Janni & Naghavi, Mohsen & Griswold, Max & Rehm, Jürgen & Hall, Wayne & Sartorius, Benn & Scott, James & Emil Vollset, Stein & Knudsen, Ann & Maria Haro, Josep & Patton, George & Kopec, Jacek & Vos, Theo. (2018). The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and drug use in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Psychiatry. 10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30337-7.
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Summary

Background

Alcohol and drug use can have negative consequences on the health, economy, productivity, and social aspects of communities.

Neighbourhood Tobacco Supply and Individual Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

Citation
Clemens T, Dibben C, Pearce J, et al. Neighbourhood tobacco supply and individual maternal smoking during pregnancy: a fixed-effects longitudinal analysis using routine data. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 02 November 2018. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054422
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Abstract

Background: Tobacco policy is increasingly focusing on the ‘tobacco endgame’ which commits to eradicating tobacco use (prevalence below 5%) within the next two decades. Strategies for achieving the endgame are likely to include addressing the supply of tobacco products, yet current evidence to support this approach is primarily cross-sectional.

Potential benefit of N-acetylcysteine for the management of cocaine base paste addiction

Citation
Betancur M., Carmen, & Vicente P., Benjamín. (2018). Potencial beneficio de la N-acetilcisteína para el manejo de la adicción a pasta base de cocaína. Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría, 56(3), 186-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0717-92272018000300186
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Abstract

In Chile, the consumption of Cocaine Base Paste (CBP), a highly toxic and addictive substance, has become a serious medical and social problem in the poorest areas of the country. This substance is smoked and quickly provokes in the user the compulsive desire to continue using it, as well as to great difficulty in stopping consumption, mainlydue to the withdrawal symptoms that it generates in the user.

A Qualitative Exploration of School-Based Staff’s Experiences of Delivering an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in the High School Setting

Citation
G J McGeechan, E L Giles, S Scott, R McGovern, S Boniface, A Ramsay, H Sumnall, D Newbury-Birch, E Kaner, SIPS JR-HIGH Study Team; A qualitative exploration of school-based staff’s experiences of delivering an alcohol screening and brief intervention in the high school setting: findings from the SIPS JR-HIGH trial, Journal of Public Health, , fdy184, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy184
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Abstract

Background

Whilst underage drinking in the UK has been declining in recent years, prevalence is still higher than in most other Western European countries. Therefore, it is important to deliver effective interventions to reduce risk of harm.

Methods

Research on the Perception of Brazilian Parliamentarians on Drug Policy

Citation
Relatório Executivo da Pesquisa sobre percepção dos parlamentares brasileiros sobre política de drogas, 2016, Brasilia, Brasil
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Seeking to qualify the public debate on drug policy and guide the actions of its members, the Brazilian Drug Policy Platform conducted a survey with the Federal Legislative Branch to map the opinions and perceptions of the congressmen on the current drug policy in the country.

The Key Drivers of Alcohol Supply and Demand

Citation
Jin, Z., Chang, H. H., Ponicki, W. R., Gaidus, A., Waller, L. A., Morrison, C. N., & Gruenewald, P. J. (2018). Longitudinal impacts of two causal drivers of alcohol demand on outlet concentrations within community settings: Population size and income effects. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 27, 21-28.
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Alcohol outlets will open to sell alcohol and meet market demand.  The supply and demand are linked so that greater supply will induce yet greater demand.