Cochrane Tobacco Addiction: Key Review Summaries
Below are two-page summaries of research carried out by the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation Electronic cigarettes for
The negative impact of harmful substance use on societies physical and mental wellbeing is a global issue. Substance use disorders are associated with a significant disease burden.
There has been a concerning steady increase in heroin-related deaths in countries around the world. Treatment is rarely simple, and it often requires multiple attempts before a person is able to abstain from using or reduce their use.
Longitudinal studies can help track the diverse range of treatment pathways and levels of success over time.
Despite increasing awareness of the negative consequences of alcohol, rates of consumption among young adults remain high.
Longitudinal studies provide insight into the risk and protective factors in a young persons life that might increase the chance that they start drinking, and whether or not they will misuse alcohol. One such factor is whether or not the young person was exposed to alcohol prenatally.
It is recognised that smoking and use of tobacco products among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) young adults is higher compared to their heterosexual and cisgender peers.
Although it is believed that within the LGBTQ population, patterns of tobacco use vary based on gender, age and sexual identity, there is a lack of research on specific differences.
It is generally known and accepted that heavy drinking during pregnancy can have harmful effects on the development of the unborn child. What is less well understood, and is causing uncertainty amongst the public, is the impact of low-level alcohol use during pregnancy.
Given the current growth of ageing populations, alcohol consumption among the elderly has received increased attention.
What is deemed to be a ‘safe’ level of consumption has also been thrown into question, in the light of new evidence of a link between alcohol and illness in later life.
Excessive alcohol consumption is a continuous global public health concern.
It is believed that glass size can influence pouring behaviour, with larger glasses resulting in more alcohol being poured into them, and also by influencing perceptions of volume, with the same volume of alcohol being perceived as less when poured into larger compared with smaller glasses.
Although alcohol consumption among young people in the UK has been declining there remains a concerning level of binge drinking amongst 16–24-year-olds.
One intervention, that is cost-effective and has a wide reach, is the inclusion of health messaging and product-related information on alcohol packaging. It is important therefore to understand how much information is being processed and recalled by young people.
Research suggests clear associations between the severity of childhood trauma, levels of substance use and dissociation - the detachment or disruption to normal consciousness. Despite the apparent link, it remains unclear whether the level of substance use can, in some part, explain the relationship between trauma severity and the extent of dissociation.
Over the past decade there has been an increase in the manufacture and use of psychostimulants in countries around the world. Around two-thirds of illicit psychostimulant users are male with average age of use for methamphetamine and cocaine being in the mid-30s, and for MDMA in the mid-20s.
Both alcohol and tobacco use is an increasing public health concern in low- or middle-income countries. Due to an annual economic growth rate of approximately 10%, Ethiopia is a target for both the alcohol and tobacco industries.
Although data is limited, trends suggest that alcohol consumption is a particular problem among secondary school students.
Preventing underage use among marginalised youth a case study of UYDEL
To facilitate decentralisation and scale-up of mental health services, Fiji’s Ministry of Health and Medical Services committed to implementing the World Health Organization’s mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). mhGAP training has been prolific; however, it remains unclear, beyond this, how successfully Fiji’s national mental health program has been implemented.
Unlike other plants, Cannabis sativa is excluded from regulation by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Distinctive Cannabis varieties are ostracized from registration and therefore nearly impossible to verify.
Cannabis, cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are heavily investigated topics with many articles published every year. We aimed to identify the 100 most cited manuscripts among the vast literature and analyze their contents.
In the United States (US), three in 10 cannabis users develop cannabis use disorder (CUD). Usage patterns in line with CUD may be associated with socio-economic disadvantage, and other negative effects. Thus, research on CUD is paramount.
Currently, with the legalization of cannabis and the opening of recreational dispensaries in states across the country, the question of whether or not proximity to recreational cannabis dispensaries affects high school students in terms of their cannabis use, their perceptions of the accessibility of cannabis and their perceptions on the harmfulness and wrongfulness of using cannabis is particularly relevant and timely.
This paper provides many pieces of research in the search for the most effective treatments for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). They touch on the effectiveness of Medication-Assisted Treatment. The authors also describe the most at-risk populations of OUD and the importance of recognizing the comorbidity of other disorders.
Background: Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris.
This article is a review and analysis of past research that finds substantial evidence for the positive results of Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in treating Opioid Use Disorder.
Objective: Previous research suggests that some adolescents are using e-cigarette devices to vaporise (‘vaping’) cannabis in the form of hash oil, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax or oil, or dried cannabis buds or leaves. However, it is unclear how adolescents who vape cannabis use other tobacco products.
Alcohol use during pregnancy can have a variety of harmful consequences on the fetus. Lifelong effects include growth restriction, characteristic facial anomalies, and neurobehavioral dysfunction. This range of effects is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). There is no amount, pattern, or timing of alcohol use during pregnancy proven safe for a developing embryo or fetus.
Medical cannabis has been touted as a solution to the US opioid overdose crisis since Bachhuber et al. [M. A. Bachhuber, B. Saloner, C. O. Cunningham, C. L. Barry, JAMA Intern. Med. 174, 1668–1673] found that from 1999 to 2010 states with medical cannabis laws experienced slower increases in opioid analgesic overdose mortality.
There is strong evidence to suggest there is a link between alcohol consumption and breast cancer, with there being a 5%–9% increased risk per 10g ethanol per day. Despite the clear associations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer, public awareness of this issue is low.
Back in the 1990s, results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) highlighted concerning levels of adolescent substance use in Iceland. Since the publication of the ESPAD results, Icelandic authorities have made a considerable effort to reverse these trends, with a fair level of success.
Despite the high rate of traumatic events in clients with substance use disorders, trauma exposure often remains undetected in a majority of treatment-seeking clients. Improving health professionals’ knowledge and skills in the inquiry of traumatic events is therefore of utmost importance for appropriately addressing trauma-related treatment needs.
Despite the high rate of traumatic events in clients with substance use disorders, trauma exposure often remains undetected in a majority of treatment-seeking clients.
Introducción: Los altos índices de deserción y recaídas son un reto en la implementación de intervenciones en adicciones. El nivel en que los terapeutas implementan procedimientos y promueven el egreso exitoso del usuario ha sido poco explorado.
The present study analyzes the main barriers and adaptations to brief interventions that focus on addictive behavior treatments carried out in clinical settings by 756 health professionals during their adoption process in 350 Primary Attention Units in Mexico.
This study aimed to develop a method for discriminating cigarette brands based on the profiles of volatile components extracted from the tobacco fraction of the finished cigarettes to authenticate branded cigarettes of unknown origin.