Research

The Key Drivers of Alcohol Supply and Demand

Citation
Jin, Z., Chang, H. H., Ponicki, W. R., Gaidus, A., Waller, L. A., Morrison, C. N., & Gruenewald, P. J. (2018). Longitudinal impacts of two causal drivers of alcohol demand on outlet concentrations within community settings: Population size and income effects. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 27, 21-28.
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Alcohol outlets will open to sell alcohol and meet market demand.  The supply and demand are linked so that greater supply will induce yet greater demand.

Inactivation of HCV and HIV by Microwave: A Novel Approach for Prevention of Virus Transmission among People who Inject Drugs

Citation
Siddharta, A. et al. Inactivation of HCV and HIV by microwave: a novel approach for prevention of virus transmission among people who inject drugs. Sci. Rep. 6, 36619; doi: 10.1038/srep36619 (2016).
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Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmissions among people who inject drugs (PWID) continue to pose a challenging global health problem. Here, we aimed to analyse a universally applicable inactivation procedure, namely microwave irradiation, as a safe and effective method to reduce the risk of viral transmission.

How Alcohol Can Change How Memories Are Formed

Citation
Petruccelli, E., Feyder, M., Ledru, N., Jaques, Y., Anderson, E., & Kaun, K. R. (2018). Alcohol Activates Scabrous-Notch to Influence Associated Memories. Neuron.
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Consuming alcohol often comes with negative side effects, such as nausea or headaches, however we have a tendency to remember the positive experience of drinking rather than the negative consequences.

The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Associates with NMDA Receptors to Produce Glutamatergic Hypofunction: Implications in Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Citation
Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Rodríguez-Muñoz, M., & Garzón, J. (2014). The cannabinoid receptor 1 associates with NMDA receptors to produce glutamatergic hypofunction: implications in psychosis and schizophrenia. Frontiers in pharmacology, 4, 169. doi:10.3389/fphar.2013.00169
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The endocannabinoid system is widespread throughout the central nervous system and its type 1 receptor (CB1) plays a crucial role in preventing the neurotoxicity caused by activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Indeed, it is the activity of NMDARs themselves that provides the demands on the endogenous cannabinoids in order to control their calcium currents.

Sex Differences in Cannabis Use

Citation
Struik, D., Sanna, F., & Fattore, L. (2018). The modulating role of sex and anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones in cannabinoid sensitivity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 249.
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Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and, with the rise of decriminalisation and legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use, it is expected this will increase even further.

Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Treatment for Opioid Use Disorders

Citation
Samples, H., Williams, A. R., Olfson, M., & Crystal, S. (2018). Risk factors for discontinuation of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorders in a multi-state sample of Medicaid enrollees. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 95, 9-17.
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Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), and the associated risk of overdose and death, is becoming one of the most prevalent threats to health and social wellbeing in the United States.

The Mechanism Behind Alcohol Addiction

Citation
You, C., Savarese, A., Vandegrift, B. J., He, D., Pandey, S. C., Lasek, A. W., & Brodie, M. S. (2018). Ethanol acts on KCNK13 potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area to increase firing rate and modulate binge–like drinking. Neuropharmacology.
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Neurons are highly specialised cells that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurons are highly specialised cells that receive, processes, and transmit information, within the br

Gene Therapy for Cocaine Addiction

Citation
Li, Y., Kong, Q., Yue, J., Gou, X., Xu, M., & Wu, X. (2018). Genome-edited skin epidermal stem cells protect mice from cocaine-seeking behaviour and cocaine overdose. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1.
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Cocaine addiction is linked with uncontrollable drug seeking. Cues within the environment act as a constant reminder of the experience and can lead to relapse.

Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development

Citation
Morin, J., Afzali, M., Bourque, J., Stewart, S., Séguin, J., O'Leary-Barrett, M., & Conrod, P. (2018). A Population-Based Analysis of the Relationship Between Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Appiajp201818020202.
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Both alcohol and cannabis misuse is linked with impaired mental functioning. Understanding the impact of substance use is particularly important when studying the developing brain.

E-cigarettes: An Unintended Illicit Drug Delivery System

Citation
Breitbarth, A. K., Morgan, J., & Jones, A. L. (2018). E-cigarettes-An unintended illicit drug delivery system. Drug and alcohol dependence.
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Abstract

Since the introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in 2003, the technology has advanced allowing for greater user modifications, with users now able to control voltage, battery power, and constituents of the e-cigarette liquid.

Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas

Citation
Hernández, J. L. A., & Huesca, R. S. (2008). Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas.
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Abstract

Con el objetivo de conocer la experiencia migratoria a Estados Unidos de mujeres mexicanas, de identificar si cuentan con redes sociales cercanas de usuarias de drogas, así como valorar la presencia de consumo de dichas sustancias y si esto tiene alguna relación con la experiencia migratoria, se diseño una investigación de tipo exploratorio.

Smoking and Obesity in Chile’s Third National Health Survey

Citation
Bachelet VC, Lanas F. Smoking and obesity in Chile’s Third National Health Survey: light and shade. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e132. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.132
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ABSTRACT

The Chilean Ministry of Health recently disclosed the first results of the 2016–2017 National Health Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Salud, ENS). The survey was cross-sectional and used a multistage stratified random sampling strategy resulting in a final sample of 6 233 persons ≥ 15 years old, with national, regional, and urban/rural representativeness.

Planning and Designing the Improving Addiction Care Team (IMPACT) for Hospitalized Adults with Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Englander, H., Weimer, M., Solotaroff, R., Nicolaidis, C., Chan, B., Velez, C., … Korthuis, P. T. (2017). Planning and Designing the Improving Addiction Care Team (IMPACT) for Hospitalized Adults with Substance Use Disorder. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 12(5), 339–342. http://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.2736
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Abstract

People with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of hospitalization and readmission, long lengths of stay, and skyrocketing healthcare costs. Yet, models for improving care are extremely limited.

Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Problems among Refugees in Primary Health Care

Citation
Kane et al. BMC Medicine 2014, 12:228 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/228
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Abstract

Background

Population-based epidemiological research has established that refugees in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for a range of mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) problems.

Despite Falling Rates, Smoking-Related Lung Cancer Will Remain a Major Health Concern

Citation
Jeon, J., Holford, T. R., Levy, D. T., Feuer, E. J., Cao, P., Tam, J., ... & Meza, R. (2018). Smoking and Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States From 2015 to 2065: A Comparative Modeling Approach. Annals of internal medicine.
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Tobacco control interventions introduced in the United States over the past 50 years have led to notable decrease in smoking and smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer.

Young Drivers Who Use Cannabis at Higher Risk of Collisions

Citation
Ronen, A., Chassidim, H. S., Gershon, P., Parmet, Y., Rabinovich, A., Bar-Hamburger, R., ... & Shinar, D. (2010). The effect of alcohol, THC and their combination on perceived effects, willingness to drive and performance of driving and non-driving tasks. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(6), 1855-1865.
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It has been suggested that cannabis use increases risk of driving collisions through affecting braking and choice reaction time; causing impairment of lane position, disrupting head-way and dynamic tracking; distorting time perception; reducing divided and sustained attention; and increasing caution. <

Internet-Delivered Drug and Alcohol Treatment

Citation
Shulman, M., Campbell, A., Pavlicova, M., Hu, M. C., Aharonovich, E., & Nunes, E. V. (2018). Cognitive functioning and treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of internet‐delivered drug and alcohol treatment. The American journal on addictions, 27(6), 509-515.
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Often individuals with substance use disorders show signs of impaired attention/ mental control, information processing or general cognitive functioning.

Drug Misuse and Hepatitis C Virus Infection Profiles for Three Generations of Patients Being Monitored for Prescription Drug Adherence

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ABSTRACT

Objectives: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945–1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers.

Investigating the Growing Trend of Non-Drinking among Young People

Citation
Ng Fat et al. BMC Public Health (2018) 18:1090 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5995-3
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Abstract

Background

Non-drinking among young people has increased over the past decade in England, yet the underlying factor driving this change is unknown. Traditionally non-drinking has been found to be associated with lower socio-economic status and poorer health.

Tobacco Use by Clients Receiving SUD Treatment

Citation
Campbell BK, et al. Health Risk Perceptions and Reasons for Use of Tobacco Products Among Clients in Addictions Treatment. Addictive Behaviors 2018 (in press). [doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.08.037]
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Although cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has been steadily decreasing, rates continue to remain high amongst certain vulnerable populations.

A Step‑Wise Community Engagement and Capacity Building Model Prior to Implementation of mhGAP‑IG in a Low and Middle‑Income Country

Citation
Mutiso et al. Int J Ment Health Syst (2018) 12:57 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0234-y
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Abstract

Background

The World Health Organization developed the Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) as guidelines for innovative utilization of available resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in order to accelerate the reduction of the mental health treatment gap.

How Cocaine Cues Get Planted in the Brain

Citation
Taniguchi, M., Carreira, M.B., Cooper, Y.A., et al. HDAC5 and its target gene, Npas4, function in the nucleus accumbens to regulate cocaine-conditioned behaviors. Neuron 96(1):130-144.e6, 2017
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Individuals suffering from substance use disorders develop strong associations between the drug’s stimulating effect and environmental cues that act as reminders of the experience, which can lead to relapse.

Low Self-Esteem Connected to Greater Risk for Opioid Use

Citation
Helen M. Hendy, Pamela Black, S. Hakan Can, Alicia Fleischut, Damla Aksen. Opioid Abuse as Maladaptive Coping to Life Stressors in U.S. Adults. Journal of Drug Issues, 2018; 48 (4): 560 DOI: 10.1177/0022042618783454
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It has been suggested that individuals with low self-esteem are more likely to choose maladaptive coping behaviors, such as abuse of opioids, when faced with life stressors.<

Children Whose Mothers Use Marijuana Are More Likely to Try It Themselves at Younger Age

Citation
Natasha A. Sokol, Cassandra A. Okechukwu, Jarvis T. Chen, S.V. Subramanian, Vaughan W. Rees. Maternal Cannabis Use During a Child's Lifetime Associated With Earlier Initiation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.06.023
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According to a new study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, mothers’ cannabis use is associated with earlier cannabis initiation by their children.