The problematic consumption of legal and illegal substances in pregnant and postpartum women is a growing socio-sanitary concern that has infrequently been studied from a gender perspective. This article presents the results of a multi-center, cross sectional study employing a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach that was conducted between May 2018 and June 2019. The aim of this research was to describe the patterns of psychoactive substance use as well as access to healthcare services among pregnant and postpartum women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 62 women attending Bariloche, Concordia, and La Matanza General Hospitals. Results showed evidence of the taboo associated with psychoactive substance use among pregnant and postpartum women, the discrimination that these women experience in healthcare services, and their lack of material support, which makes it difficult for them to take care of themselves.