Research

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users in Three Vietnamese Mountainous Provinces

Citation
Nguyen et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:3 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0191-8
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Abstract

Background

Globally, people who inject drugs are highly vulnerable to HIV transmission. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs are one of the most cost-effective mechanisms to substitute opioid use and improve the quality of life of patients.

Managing Alcohol-Related Attendances in Emergency Care: Can Diversion to Bespoke Services Lessen the Burden?

Citation
Irving A, Goodacre S, Blake J, et al Managing alcohol-related attendances in emergency care: can diversion to bespoke services lessen the burden? Emerg Med J 2018;35:79-82.
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Abstract

Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) has a long history of burdening emergency care services. Healthcare systems around the world have explored a variety of different services that divert AAI away from EDs to better manage their condition. Little formal evaluation has been undertaken, particularly in the UK where alcohol misuse is one of the highest in the world.

Conditional Probabilities of Substance Use Disorders and Associated Risk Factors

Citation
Marel, C., Sunderland, M., Mills, K. L., Slade, T., Teesson, M., & Chapman, C. (2019). Conditional probabilities of substance use disorders and associated risk factors: Progression from first use to use disorder on alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, sedatives and opioids. Drug and alcohol dependence, 194, 136-142.
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Highlights

Pre-existing mental disorders increases the risk of developing SUD.

Dopamine Neurons Projecting to Medial Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Heroin Reinforcement

Citation
Corre, J., van Zessen, R., Loureiro, M., Patriarchi, T., Tian, L., Pascoli, V., & Lüscher, C. (2018). Dopamine neurons projecting to medial shell of the nucleus accumbens drive heroin reinforcement. eLife, 7, e39945.
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Abstract

The dopamine (DA) hypothesis posits the increase of mesolimbic dopamine levels as a defining commonality of addictive drugs, initially causing reinforcement, eventually leading to compulsive consumption. While much experimental evidence from psychostimulants supports this hypothesis, it has been challenged for opioid reinforcement.

Sex-Dependent Effects of in Utero Cannabinoid Exposure on Cortical Function

Citation
Bara, A., Manduca, A., Bernabeu, A., Borsoi, M., Serviado, M., Lassalle, O., ... & Trezza, V. (2018). Sex-dependent effects of in utero cannabinoid exposure on cortical function. eLife, 7, e36234.
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Abstract

Cannabinoids can cross the placenta, thus may interfere with fetal endocannabinoid signaling during neurodevelopment, causing long-lasting deficits. Despite increasing reports of cannabis consumption during pregnancy, the protracted consequences of prenatal cannabinoid exposure (PCE) remain incompletely understood.

Cannabis Use and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Citation
Vaucher, J., Keating, B. J., Lasserre, A. M., Gan, W., Lyall, D. M., Ward, J., ... & Holmes, M. V. (2017). Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study. Molecular psychiatry.
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Abstract

Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia.

Access to Care for People with Alcohol Use Disorder in France

Citation
Costa M, Marcellin F, Coste M, et al Access to care for people with alcohol use disorder in France: a mixed-method cross-sectional study protocol (ASIA) BMJ Open 2018;8:e024669. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024669
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Abstract

Introduction: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health concern worldwide. In France, only 10% of people with AUD (PWAUD) receive medical care. General practitioners (GP) are one of the main entry points for AUD care.

Effectiveness Bank Analysis. REVISED: Strong Therapeutic Relationships Help Clients Get Where They Want to Be

Citation
Psychotherapy: 2018, 55(4), p. 316-340.
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Comprehensive review for the American Psychological Association concludes that the working relationship between clients and counsellors/therapists is one of the largest and most consistent determinants of outcomes. Includes practice recommendations.

Overcoming Clinician and Parent Ambivalence: General Practitioners' Support of Children of Parents with Physical or Mental Illness and/or Substance Abuse

Citation
Hafting M, Gullbrå F, Anderssen N, Rørtveit G, Smith-Sivertsen T and van Doesum K (2019) Overcoming Clinician and Parent Ambivalence: General Practitioners’ Support of Children of Parents With Physical or Mental Illness and/or Substance Abuse. Front. Psychiatry 9:724. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00724
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Children who are next of kin to parents with physical or mental illness and/or substance abuse need access to mental health support and several cost-effective interventions are available. Because most parents in the target group often consult general practitioners (GPs), GPs may have a crucial role in identifying burdened children and ensuring their follow-up.

Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users

Citation
Anic GM, Sawdey MD, Jamal A, Trivers KF. Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users — United States, 2015–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1353–1357. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6749a1
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Most tobacco product use begins during adolescence or young adulthood, increasing the risk for lifelong nicotine addiction and adverse health effects.

What is added by this report?

Adversity, Cannabis Use and Psychotic Experiences

Citation
Morgan, C., Reininghaus, U., Reichenberg, A., Frissa, S., Hotopf, M., Hatch, S. L., & SELCoH Study Team. (2014). Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 346-353.
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Abstract

Background

There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity.

Aims

Substance Use Disorders among Veterans

Citation
Boden, Matthew Tyler, and Katherine J. Hoggatt. "Substance use disorders among veterans in a nationally representative sample: prevalence and associated functioning and treatment utilization." Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 79, no. 6 (2018): 853-861.
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Individuals may use substances as a coping strategy for dealing with the stress and trauma they have experienced.
Individuals may use substances as a coping strategy for dealing with the stress and trauma they have experienced.

Improvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders through Adopting Evidence-Based Practices in Pakistan

Citation
U. Shamim. Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
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Background: The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s 2014 survey estimated that there are 6.7 million Pakistanis aged 15-64 who are illegal substance users. In 2014, Pakistan’s drug treatment capacities remained insufficient to meet demand reduction, with fewer than 100 clinics operating nationwide with the capacity to treat 30,000 substance users.

Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life in a Large National Sample of Patients Receiving Opioid Substitution Treatment in Germany

Citation
Strada et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:2 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0187-9
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Abstract

Background

Knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) is limited and fragmented. The present study examines the HRQOL of a large national sample of OST patients in Germany and sociodemographic and clinical correlates.

HIV Prevention Intervention for Substance Users: A Review of the Literature

Citation
Elkbuli et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0189-7
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Abstract

Background

Behavioral Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in substance users, which is associated with higher risk for contracting HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse or syringe-based exposure.

Acute Effects of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Healthy Adults Who Infrequently Use Cannabis

Citation
Spindle TR, Cone EJ, Schlienz NJ, et al. Acute Effects of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Healthy Adults Who Infrequently Use Cannabis: A Crossover Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(7):e184841. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.4841
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Key Points

Question: How does smoked and vaporized cannabis acutely influence subjective drug effects, cognitive and psychomotor performance, and cardiovascular measures in healthy adults who infrequently use cannabis (>30 days since last use)?

Wound Botulism Outbreak Among Persons Who Use Black Tar Heroin — San Diego County, California, 2017–2018

Citation
Peak CM, Rosen H, Kamali A, et al. Wound Botulism Outbreak Among Persons Who Use Black Tar Heroin — San Diego County, California, 2017–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;67:1415–1418. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm675152a3
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Wound botulism is a rare but serious illness associated with black tar heroin use, especially by subcutaneous injection (skin popping).

What is added by this report?

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers

Citation
Tsai J, Homa DM, Gentzke AS, et al. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers — United States, 1988–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1342–1346. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6748a3
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers.

What is added by this report?

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Alternans in a Mouse Model

Citation
Wang, Z., Wang, L., Tapa, S., Pinkerton, K. E., Chen, C. Y., & Ripplinger, C. M. (2018). Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Alternans in a Mouse Model. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(12), 127001.
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Abstract

Background:

Epidemiological evidence suggests that a majority of deaths attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are cardiovascular related. However, to our knowledge, the impact of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology, Ca2+Ca2+ handling, and arrhythmia risk has not been studied.

ÁLCOOL E RELAÇÕES DE GÊNERO: MOTIVAÇÕES E VULNERABILIDADES NA PERCEPÇÃO DE ADOLESCENTES

Citation
SANTOS, E. L.; NOTO, A. R. ; OPALEYE, E. S. . Álcool e relações de gênero: Motivações e vulnerabilidades na percepções de adolescentes. PSICOLOGIA EM ESTUDO (ONLINE), v. 23, p. 1-16, 2018.
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Elaine Lucas Dos Santos: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Saúde e Uso de Substâncias (Nepsis), Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp).
Emérita Sátiro Opaleye: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Saúde e Uso de Substâncias (Nepsis), Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp).

Drugs Most Frequently Involved in Drug Overdose Deaths: United States, 2011–2016

Citation
Hedegaard H, Bastian BA, Trinidad JP, Spencer M, Warner M. Drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths: United States, 2011–2016. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 67 no 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2018.
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Abstract

Objective: This report identifies the specific drugs involved most frequently in drug overdose deaths in the United States from 2011 through 2016.

Metal Concentrations in E-Cigarette Liquid and Aerosol Samples: The Contribution of Metallic Coils

Citation
Olmedo, P., Goessler, W., Tanda, S., Grau-Perez, M., Jarmul, S., Aherrera, A., ... & Rule, A. M. (2018). Metal concentrations in e-cigarette liquid and aerosol samples: the contribution of metallic coils. Environmental Health Perspectives (Online), 126(2).
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Abstract

Background:

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol by heating a solution (e-liquid) with a metallic coil. Whether metals are transferred from the coil to the aerosol is unknown.

Objective:

Our goal was to investigate the transfer of metals from the heating coil to the e-liquid in the e-cigarette tank and the generated aerosol.

Increased Taxation on Cigarettes in Grenada: Potential Effects on Consumption and Revenue

Citation
La Foucade A, Gabriel S, Scott E, Metivier C, Theodore K, Cumberbatch A, et al. Increased taxation on cigarettes in Grenada: potential effects on consumption and revenue. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e195. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.195
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Abstract

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To investigate the feasibility of addressing the public health concerns of tobacco consumption through increased taxation, while preserving or augmenting government revenues in Grenada. Methods. Purposive sampling methods were used to ensure data availability and geographical representativeness.

Relapse after Inpatient Substance Use Treatment

Citation
Andersson, H. W., Wenaas, M., & Nordfjærn, T. (2019). Relapse after inpatient substance use treatment: A prospective cohort study among users of illicit substances. Addictive behaviors, 90, 222-228.
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Abstract

Aims

The main aim was to investigate the relative roles of mental distress and intrinsic motivation for relapse after inpatient substance use disord

Perceived Addiction to Smoking and Associations with Motivation to Stop, Quit Attempts and Quitting Success

Citation
Perski, O., Herd, N., West, R., & Brown, J. (2019). Perceived addiction to smoking and associations with motivation to stop, quit attempts and quitting success: A prospective study of English smokers. Addictive behaviors, 90, 306-311.
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Abstract

Aims

Some argue that perceived addiction to smoking (PAS) might undermine motivation to stop. We examined the association of PAS with motivation to stop in a population sample and assessed its association with past and future quit attempts and future quit success.

Implementation of a Quit Smoking Programme in Community Adult Mental Health Services

Citation
Burns A, Webb M, Stynes G, O’Brien T, Rohde D, Strawbridge J, Clancy L and Doyle F (2018) Implementation of a Quit Smoking Programme in Community Adult Mental Health Services–A Qualitative Study. Front. Psychiatry 9:670. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00670
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Little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental health difficulties in smoking cessation interventions. This study aimed to review the implementation of a smoking cessation programme across 16 community mental health day services. The aim was to establish the experience from both service user and facilitator perspectives and refine implementation for future groups.

Alcohol Misuse and Outpatient Follow-Up after Hospital Discharge

Citation
Borg, B., Douglas, I. S., Hull, M., Keniston, A., Moss, M., & Clark, B. J. (2018). Alcohol misuse and outpatient follow-up after hospital discharge: a retrospective cohort study. Addiction science & clinical practice, 13(1), 24.
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Abstract

Purpose

Patients with alcohol misuse are less likely to receive preventive health services but more likely to utilize emergency health services. However, the association between alcohol misuse and outpatient follow-up after hospitalization is unknown and may depend on whether a patient experiences a critical illness.

Nonmedical Use of Stimulants Is Associated With Riskier Sexual Practices and Other Forms of Impulsivity

Citation
Grant, J. E., Redden, S. A., Lust, K., & Chamberlain, S. R. (2018). Nonmedical Use of Stimulants Is Associated With Riskier Sexual Practices and Other Forms of Impulsivity. Journal of addiction medicine, 12(6), 474.
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Abstract:

Background:

This study sought to examine the occurrence of the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidate) in a university sample and their associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices.

Methods: