Research

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Özgen H, Spijkerman R, Noack M, Holtmann M, Schellekens A, S, A, van de Glind G, Banaschewski T, Barta C, Begeman A, Casas M, Crunelle C, L, Daigre Blanco C, Dalsgaard S, Demetrovics Z, den Boer J, Dom G, Eapen V, Faraone S, V, Franck J, González R, A, Grau-López L, Groenman A, P, Hemphälä M, Icick R, Johnson B, Kaess M, Kapitány-Fövény M, Kasinathan J, G, Kaye S, S, Kiefer F, Konstenius M, Levin F, R, Luderer M, Martinotti G, Matthys F, I, A, Meszaros G, Moggi F, Munasur-Naidoo A, P, Post M, Rabinovitz S, Ramos-Quiroga J, A, Sala R, Shafi A, Slobodin O, Staal W, G, Thomasius R, Truter I, van Kernebeek M, W, Velez-Pastrana M, C, Vollstädt-Klein S, Vorspan F, Young J, T, Yule A, van den Brink W, Hendriks V: International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder. Eur Addict Res 2020;26:223-232. doi: 10.1159/000508385
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This international consensus statement can be used by clinicians and patients together in a shared decision-making process to select the best interventions and to reach optimal outcomes in adolescent patients with concurrent ADHD and SUD.

A Review of the Substance Use Disorder Treatment and Prevention Systems in Kenya

Citation
Jaguga, F., Kwobah, E. A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 47 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00291-5
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Researchers predict that harm from substance use and rates of substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa will increase significantly in the next 30 years.

In order to have a well-functioning health system that works in harmony, the World Health Organization (WHO)describes the need for the following features:

The Prevalence and Context of Alcohol Use among Youth Living in Uganda

Citation
Swahn, M. H., Culbreth, R., Salazar, L. F., Tumwesigye, N. M., Jernigan, D. H., Kasirye, R., & Obot, I. S. (2020). The Prevalence and Context of Alcohol Use, Problem Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harm among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2451.
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There is extensive research highlighting the negative short term and long term impact of alcohol use.

Although there is a vast amount of research investigating alcohol use among youth in high-income countries; there is a lack of research on alcohol use among youth in low-income countries

Uganda has very high alcohol consumption rates.

Perception of quality of life and health status in outpatient treatment for problematic use of psychoactive substances

Citation
Percepción de calidad de vida y estado de salud en el tratamiento ambulatorio por consumo problemático de sustancias psicoactivas
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This study indemnifies the perception of quality of life and health status in outpatient treatment for problematic consumption of psychoactive substances, in an organization of the Civil Society of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Two predefined questionnaires were applied, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Questionnaire Satisfaction Short Form and SF36 to measure the quality of life and health status perceived by the users of the device.

Tobacco Use among Older Adults in Egypt

Citation
Abdel-Hady, D., & El-Gilany, A. H. (2020). Tobacco use and its associated factors among older people: a community-based study in Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 26(1), 68-74.

Tobacco use is the primary risk factor common to the four main groups of non-communicable diseases— cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and diabetes (NCD Alliance).

Figures gathered from the Egypt Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009) show that Egypt is listed as one of the top ten per capita consumers of tobacco. 

Beer Drinking and Tax Levy in Botswana

Citation
Sebeelo, T. B. (2020). Beer drinking, resistance and the politics of alcohol tax levy in Botswana. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. https://doi.org/10.1177/1455072520936811

According to the WHO, harmful alcohol use is one of the leading risk factors for the global burden of disease.

In response to concerning trends, governments around the world have intervened in the market for alcohol by levying specific taxes.  

Prices, Alcohol Use Initiation and Heavy Episodic Drinking among Chilean Youth

Citation
Paraje, G. R., Guindon, G. E., and Chaloupka, F. J. (2020) Prices, alcohol use initiation and heavy episodic drinking among Chilean youth. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15167.

Research suggests that early initiation of alcohol use is a risk factor for multiple problems later in life, including heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorders.

Prevention scientists are particularly interested in understanding the reasons why young people experiment with alcohol and measures that can be introduced to help reduce alcohol use amongst this age group.

What Influences Pre-teens to Drink Alcohol?

Citation
Kelly, Y., Goisis, A., Sacker, A. et al. What influences 11-year-olds to drink? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. BMC Public Health 16, 169 (2016) doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2847-x

Research has shown there to be a link between heavy drinking in youth and increased risky behaviour and reduced educational effectiveness.

In order to understand the factors that are associated with binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood, it is important to understand the reasons why a young person has their initial drink.

Incarceration Impacts Cognitive Performance, and Prisoner Status Matters

Citation
Michael O. Ezenwa, Charles T. Orjiakor & Desmond U. Onu (2020) Incarceration impacts cognitive performance, and prisoner status matters, The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 31:4, 613-622, DOI: 10.1080/14789949.2020.1784249

Abstract

Globally, incarceration is understood to impoverish the wellbeing of prisoners, but evidence for its impact on cognitive performance is less popular.

Eye tracking of smoking-related stimuli in tobacco use disorder: A proof-of-concept study combining attention bias modification with alpha-transcranial alternating current stimulation

Citation
Mondino, M., Lenglos, C., Cinti, A., Renauld, E., & Fecteau, S. (2020). Eye tracking of smoking-related stimuli in tobacco use disorder: A proof-of-concept study combining attention bias modification with alpha-transcranial alternating current stimulation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108152.
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Abstract

Background

Tobacco use disorder (TUD) is characterized by the presence of an attentional bias (AB) towards smoking-related stimuli.

Geographic Proximity to Buprenorphine Treatment Providers in the U.S.

Citation
Langabeer, J., Stotts, A. L., Cortez, A., Tortolero, G., & Champagne-Langabeer, T. (2020). Geographic proximity to buprenorphine treatment providers in the US. Drug and alcohol dependence, 108131.

Abstract

Objective

To combat the growing opioid epidemic, people who use drugs need access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) as part of comprehensive treatment. Despite progress, treatment gaps remain. Our objective was to use a geospatial buffering model to estimate treatment access for buprenorphine providers nationally.

 

Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use

Citation
Vink, J. M., Veul, L., Abdellaoui, A., Hottenga, J. J., Boomsma, D. I., & Verweij, K. J. (2020). Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108102.

Abstract

Background

The use of illicit substances is correlated, meaning that individuals who use one illicit substance are more likely to also use another illicit substance. This association could (partly) be explained by overlapping genetic factors. Genetic overlap may indicate a common underlying genetic predisposition, or can be the result of a causal association.

 

Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use

Citation
Pasman, J., Smit, D., Kingma, L., Vink, J., Treur, J., & Verweij, K. (2020, July 02). Causal relationships between substance use and insomnia. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871620303161

Abstract

Background

Poor sleep quality and insomnia have been associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis, but it is unclear if there is a causal link. In this Mendelian Randomization (MR) study we examine if insomnia causes substance use and/or if substance use causes insomnia.

 

Substance Use Patterns and Health Profiles among US Adults who Use Opioids, Methamphetamine, or Both, 2015-2018

Citation
Shearer, R. D., Howell, B. A., Bart, G., & Winkelman, T. N. (2020). Substance use patterns and health profiles among US adults who use opioids, methamphetamine, or both, 2015-2018. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108162.
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Abstract

Background

Methamphetamine use, with and without opioids, has increased substantially, but little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, or health profiles of individuals who use methamphetamine.

A Review of the Public Sector Substance Use Disorder Treatment and Prevention Systems in Kenya

Citation
Jaguga, F., Kwobah, E. A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 47 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00291-5
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

The burden of substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa has been projected to increase by an estimated 130% by 2050. Despite this, little is known about the substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in the region.

Discussing Alcohol Use with the GP

Citation
Discussing alcohol use with the GP: a qualitative study Sandra Coste, Laetitia Gimenez, Aurélie Comes, Xavier Abdelnour, Julie Dupouy, Emile Escourrou BJGP Open 2020; 4 (2): bjgpopen20X101029. DOI: 10.3399/bjgpopen20X101029

A General Practitioner (GP) is often the first point of contact for people struggling with alcohol related issues. These doctors must be trained to detect problematic drinking as well as have the confidence and skills to have open conversations with patients. 

Feedback from patients who have received support from their GP helps inform guidance to having these conversations.

Longitudinal Evaluation of the Impact of Standardised Packaging and Minimum Excise Tax on Tobacco Sales and Industry Revenue in the UK

Citation
Hiscock R, Augustin NH, Gilmore AB, et alLongitudinal evaluation of the impact of standardised packaging and minimum excise tax on tobacco sales and industry revenue in the UKTobacco Control Published Online First: 12 July 2020. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055387
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Abstract

Background Standardised packaging for factory-made cigarettes (FM) and roll-your-own tobacco (RYO), and a minimum excise tax (MET) were fully implemented in the UK in May 2017 following a 12-month transition period. This paper is the first to examine effects on tobacco sales volumes and company revenues.

 

Measuring Capital in Active Addiction and Recovery: The Development of the Strengths and Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS)

Citation
Best, D., Vanderplasschen, W. & Nisic, M. Measuring capital in active addiction and recovery: the development of the strengths and barriers recovery scale (SABRS). Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 40 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00281-7
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Abstract

Background

The international Life In Recovery (LiR) surveys have provided an important message to the public and policy makers about the reality of change from addiction to recovery, consistently demonstrating both that there are marked gains across a range of life domains and that the longer the person is in recovery the better their recovery strengths and achievements.

Mental Health and Smoking Cessation

Citation
Brose, L.S., Brown, J. & McNeill, A. Mental health and smoking cessation—a population survey in England. BMC Med 18, 161 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01617-7

Smoking rates among people with a mental health condition are significantly higher than in the general population. 

Research has also found that individuals with mental health issues who smoke are more likely to smoke heavily and extract more nicotine from each cigarette compared to people who smoke who do not have a mental health condition.

The Relationship Between Alcohol-related Hospital Admission and Specialist Alcohol Treatment Provision in England

Citation
Roberts, E., Hotopf, M., & Drummond, C. (2020). The relationship between alcohol-related hospital admission and specialist alcohol treatment provision across local authorities in England since passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-3. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.120

In March 2012 the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) was approved, resulting in the commissioning responsibility of specialist drug and alcohol service transferring from the National Health Service (NHS) to local authorities in England.

This shift was designed to allow greater flexibility and freedom to respond to local need.

Association of Recreational Cannabis Laws in Colorado and Washington State With Changes in Traffic Fatalities, 2005-2017

Citation
Santaella-Tenorio J, Wheeler-Martin K, DiMaggio CJ, et al. Association of Recreational Cannabis Laws in Colorado and Washington State With Changes in Traffic Fatalities, 2005-2017. JAMA Intern Med. Published online June 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1757
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Abstract

Importance: An important consequence of cannabis legalization is the potential increase in the number of cannabis-impaired drivers on roads, which may result in higher rates of traffic-related injuries and fatalities. To date, limited information about the effects of recreational cannabis laws (RCLs) on traffic fatalities is available.

Chronic Alcohol Consumption Alters Extracellular Space Geometry and Transmitter Diffusion in the Brain

Citation
S. De Santis, A. Cosa-Linan, R. Garcia-Hernandez, L. Dmytrenko, L. Vargova, I. Vorisek, S. Stopponi, P. Bach, P. Kirsch, F. Kiefer, R. Ciccocioppo, E. Sykova, D. Moratal, W. H. Sommer, S. Canals, Chronic alcohol consumption alters extracellular space geometry and transmitter diffusion in the brain. Sci. Adv. 6, eaba0154 (2020).
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Abstract

Already moderate alcohol consumption has detrimental long-term effects on brain function. However, how alcohol produces its potent addictive effects despite being a weak reinforcer is a poorly understood conundrum that likely hampers the development of successful interventions to limit heavy drinking.

Integrating Treatment for Co-Occurring Mental Health Conditions

Citation
Alcohol Res. 2019;40(1):07. https://doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v40.1.07.
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Given the high co-occurrence between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and mental health conditions (MHCs), and the increased morbidity associated with the presence of co-occurring disorders, it is important that co-occurring disorders be identified and both disorders addressed in integrated treatment.

Alcohol’s Effects on Breast Cancer in Women

Citation
Alcohol Res. 2020;40(2):11. https://doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v40.2.11.
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Globally, more than 2 million new cases of breast cancer are reported annually. The United States alone has more than 496,000 new cases every year. The worldwide prevalence is approximately 6.8 million cases. Although many risk factors for breast cancer are not modifiable, understanding the role of the factors that can be altered is critical. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable factor.

A Structural Competency Curriculum for Primary Care Providers to Address the Opioid Use Disorder, HIV, and Hepatitis C Syndemic

Citation
Bagchi, A. D. (2020). A Structural Competency Curriculum for Primary Care Providers to Address the Opioid Use Disorder, HIV, and Hepatitis C Syndemic. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 210.
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The interrelated epidemics of opioid use disorder (OUD) and HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been identified as one of the most pressing syndemics facing the United States today.

Smoking Prevalence, Patterns, and Cessation Among Adults in Hebei Province, Central China: Implications From China National Health Survey (CNHS)

Citation
He, H., Pan, L., Cui, Z., Sun, J., Yu, C., Cao, Y., ... & Shan, G. (2020). Smoking Prevalence, Patterns, and Cessation Among Adults in Hebei Province, Central China: Implications From China National Health Survey (CNHS). Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 177.
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As part of the China National Health Survey, the objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, patterns, and influencing factors of smoking, and understand reasons for smoking cessation among adults in Hebei Province, central China. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 6,552 adults (2,594 males) aged 20–80 were selected in 2017.

Effectiveness of a Brief Lay Counsellor-Delivered, Problem-Solving Intervention for Adolescent Mental Health Problems in Urban, Low-Income Schools in India: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Citation
Michelson, D., Malik, K., Parikh, R., Weiss, H., Doyle, A., Bhat, B., ... & Sharma, R. (2020). Effectiveness of a brief lay counsellor-delivered, problem-solving intervention for adolescent mental health problems: randomised controlled trial in urban, low-income schools in India. Lancet Child and Adolescent Health. ISSN 2352-4642 (Accepted). Lancet Child and Adolescent Health.
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Summary

Background

Mental health problems are a leading cause of disability in adolescents worldwide. Problem solving is a well-tested mental health intervention in many populations. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a brief, transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention for common adolescent mental health problems when delivered by non-specialist school counsellors in New Delhi, India.

Reducing Risky Alcohol Use via Smartphone App Skills Training Among Adult Internet Help-Seekers: A Randomized Pilot Trial

Citation
Berman, A. H., Molander, O., Tahir, M., Törnblom, P., Gajecki, M., Sinadinovic, K., & Andersson, C. (2020). Reducing Risky Alcohol Use via Smartphone App Skills Training Among Adult Internet Help-Seekers: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11.
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Alcohol is one of the leading risk factors for global disease burden and overconsumption leads to a wide variety of negative consequences in everyday life. Digital interventions have shown small positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use. Specific research on smartphone apps is sparse and the few studies published indicate effects ranging from negative or null to small or moderate.