Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder among Special Subpopulations: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
To collate prevalence estimates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among special subpopulations (defined by service use).
The consumption of alcohol carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences related to its intoxicating, toxic and dependence-producing properties (WHO).
When assessing alcohol-related harm estimates primarily focus on the individual who is consuming alcohol.
Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a diagnostic term used to describe physical, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive impairments that have occurred following exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. The diagnosis of FASD requires a complex assessment and confirmation of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Obtaining accurate and reliable assessment results can be difficult.
Alcohol consumption in pregnancy has the potential to cause significant fetal damage. It is estimated that approximately 3.2% of babies born in the UK are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, though the guidance says currently few children are identified or receive support.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among young people in youth detention in Australia. Neurodevelopmental impairments due to FASD can predispose young people to engagement with the law. Canadian studies identified FASD in 11%–23% of young people in corrective services, but there are no data for Australia.
Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated.
Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC) and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis.
Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Adult Offspring of Alcohol-Consuming Dams after Neonatal Treatment with Thyroxin or Metformin
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2–11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment.