Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Awareness Day

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Awareness Day originated in Canada with the first FASD Day taking place on 9th September 1999. Since then the campaign has gathered global recognition with many countries now taking part in activities to raise awareness of FASD and the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder is a lifelong condition that results from a baby being exposed to alcohol in the womb before they are born. This exposure to

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder among Special Subpopulations: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Citation
Popova, S., Lange, S., Shield, K., Burd, L., and Rehm, J. ( 2019) Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among special subpopulations: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14598.
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Abstract

Aim

To collate prevalence estimates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among special subpopulations (defined by service use).

Assessing Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in a Study of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Citation
Freeman, Jacinta, Carmen Condon, Sharynne Hamilton, Raewyn C. Mutch, Carol Bower, and Rochelle E. Watkins. "Challenges in accurately assessing prenatal alcohol exposure in a study of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in a youth detention center." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (2018).
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Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a diagnostic term used to describe physical, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive impairments that have occurred following exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. The diagnosis of FASD requires a complex assessment and confirmation of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Obtaining accurate and reliable assessment results can be difficult.

Children and Young People Exposed Prenatally to Alcohol - Clinical Guidelines

Published by
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
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Alcohol consumption in pregnancy has the potential to cause significant fetal damage. It is estimated that approximately 3.2% of babies born in the UK are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, though the guidance says currently few children are identified or receive support.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Youth Justice

Citation
Bower C, Watkins RE, Mutch RC, et al Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and youth justice: a prevalence study among young people sentenced to detention in Western Australia BMJ Open 2018;8:e019605. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019605
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Abstract

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among young people in youth detention in Australia. Neurodevelopmental impairments due to FASD can predispose young people to engagement with the law. Canadian studies identified FASD in 11%–23% of young people in corrective services, but there are no data for Australia.

Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

Citation
Woods KJ, Jacobson SW, Molteno CD, Jacobson JL and Meintjes EM (2018) Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 11:627. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00627
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Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated.

Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

Citation
Biffen SC, Warton CMR, Lindinger NM, Randall SR, Lewis CE, Molteno CD, Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW and Meintjes EM (2018) Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ. Front. Neuroanat. 11:132. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2017.00132
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Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC) and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis.

Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Adult Offspring of Alcohol-Consuming Dams after Neonatal Treatment with Thyroxin or Metformin

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2–11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment.