At issue was whether by referring heroin users to treatment, probation services in England would protect them from fatal overdose and prevent drug-related crime. Yes to one, but not the other, were the answers; unexpectedly, crime went up. Enough to warrant abandoning treatment referral as a crime-prevention tactic?
Seminal work from Australia identified these as the three pillars of medication-based treatment of drug dependence; they form the kernel of this bite’s exploration of organisational influences on these treatments.
A Randomized, Open Label Trial of Methadone Continuation versus Forced Withdrawal in a Combined US Prison and Jail
Effectiveness Bank Analysis: Keep Maintaining Opiate-Dependent Prisoners
Further evidence from England that the ‘Tough Choices’ schemes which force people arrested for certain offences to be tested for heroin or cocaine use and if positive to be assessed for treatment do not pay back in terms of treatment engagement or crime reduction.
The 'Tough Choices' Policy: