Research

Intention to Reduce Drinking Alcohol and Preferred Sources of Support

Citation
Davies, Emma L., Larissa J. Maier, Adam R. Winstock, and Jason A. Ferris. "Intention to reduce drinking alcohol and preferred sources of support: An international cross-sectional study." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (2019).
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Although rates vary from country to country, harmful alcohol use can be considered a global public health concern. The Global Drug Survey (GDS) is the world's largest annual survey of substance use. 

Drinking in Later Life: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Exploring Older People’s Perceptions and Experiences

Citation
Bethany Kate Bareham, Eileen Kaner, Liam Patrick Spencer, Barbara Hanratty; Drinking in later life: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies exploring older people’s perceptions and experiences, Age and Ageing, Volume 48, Issue 1, 1 January 2019, Pages 134–146, https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afy069
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Abstract

Background

Responding to the Health Needs of Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review

Citation
Hemmings et al. BMC Health Services Research (2016) 16:320 DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1538-8
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Abstract

Background

Despite the multiple physical and psychological health consequences associated with human trafficking, there is little evidence-based guidance available for health providers on assessing and meeting the health needs of trafficked people.

Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review

Citation
Horyniak D, Melo JS, Farrell RM, Ojeda VD, Strathdee SA (2016) Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159134. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0159134
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Abstract

Introduction

Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality.

Quality Measurers of Therapeutic Communities for Substance Dependence: An International Collaborative Study Survey in Latin America

Citation
Gómez-Restrepo et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2017) 12:53 DOI 10.1186/s13011-017-0129-y
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Abstract

Background

In Latin America, substance related disorders are highly prevalent and one of the treatment strategies is the Therapeutic Communities (TCs), however, in Latin America there is scarce data about this treatment strategies, their quality, drop-out rates and patient satisfaction.

Sustainable Financing Options for Mental Health Care in South Africa: Findings from a Situation Analysis and Key Informant Interviews

Citation
Docrat et al. Int J Ment Health Syst (2019) 13:4 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0260-4
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Abstract

Background

With the implicit neglect for the integration of mental health services into general health service development in South Africa, there is an urgent need for an understanding of the ways in which existing reforms may be leveraged to incorporate the objectives of the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan (MHPF) and the mechanisms by which these reforms can be structured and fi

Effectiveness Bank Analysis: Guidance on Some of the Trickiest Decisions Therapists Have to Make

Citation
Psychotherapy: 2018, 55(4), p. 445-460
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It’s a dilemma for all therapists and counsellors - how much to disclose about yourself. Another difficult decision is when to directly confront what is happening then and there in therapy. A review for the American Psychological Association finds that generally positive reactions follow, but also that these tactics can backfire.

Pricing of Tobacco Products During, and After, the Introduction of Plain Packaging

Citation
Critchlow, Nathan, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Kathryn Angus, Douglas Eadie, and Anne Marie MacKintosh. "Pricing of tobacco products during, and after, the introduction of standardized packaging: an observational study of retail price data from independent and convenience (small) retailers in the United Kingdom." Addiction (2018).
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In 2016 the UK government introduced a policy that required factory-made cigarettes and roll your own tobacco to be sold in plain packaging with pictorial and text warnings.

Prenatal Marijuana Use: Perspectives of Pregnant Women

Citation
Chang, Judy C., Jill A. Tarr, Cynthia L. Holland, Natacha M. De Genna, Gale A. Richardson, Keri L. Rodriguez, Jeanelle Sheeder et al. "Beliefs and attitudes regarding prenatal marijuana use: Perspectives of pregnant women who report use." Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2019).
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Marijuana is the drug most commonly used by pregnant women. Understanding the beliefs, attitudes and experience of marijuana use during pregnancy will help practitioners design motivational intervention for women.

Treatment Gap, Help-Seeking, Stigma and Magnitude of Alcohol Use Disorder in Rural Ethiopia

Citation
Zewdu et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:4 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0192-7
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Abstract

Background

Although alcohol use disorders contribute a high proportion of population disease burden, the treatment gap is large, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To narrow this gap, contextually relevant evidence is needed to inform service development in low- and middle-income country settings.

Evaluation of State-Mandated Reporting of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome — Six States, 2013–2017

Citation
Jilani SM, Frey MT, Pepin D, et al. Evaluation of State-Mandated Reporting of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome — Six States, 2013–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:6–10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6801a2
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

In 2014, in the United States, an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) was born every 15 minutes. Historically, NAS surveillance has depended on hospital discharge data, frequently with a time lag, limiting ability to rapidly direct public health resources.

What is added by this report?

Overdose Deaths Involving Fentanyl and Fentanyl Analogs — New York City, 2000–2017

Citation
Colon-Berezin C, Nolan ML, Blachman-Forshay J, Paone D. Overdose Deaths Involving Fentanyl and Fentanyl Analogs — New York City, 2000–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:37–40. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6802a3
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

During 1999–2017, the rate of drug overdose deaths nationally approximately tripled; approximately 70,000 overdose deaths occurred nationally in 2017, with nearly 68% involving an opioid.

What is added by this report?

Opioid Prescribing Rates in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties among Primary Care Providers Using an Electronic Health Record System

Citation
García MC, Heilig CM, Lee SH, et al. Opioid Prescribing Rates in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties Among Primary Care Providers Using an Electronic Health Record System — United States, 2014–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:25–30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6802a1
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Opioid prescribing rates vary by county urbanization level and are declining overall.

What is added by this report?

Age‐Varying Effects of Cannabis Use Frequency and Disorder on Symptoms of Psychosis, Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents and Adults

Citation
Leadbeater, Bonnie J., Megan E. Ames, and Ashley N. Linden‐Carmichael. "Age‐varying effects of cannabis use frequency and disorder on symptoms of psychosis, depression and anxiety in adolescents and adults." Addiction 114, no. 2 (2019): 278-293.
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A recent study, published in the Journal of Addiction, has examined the association of cannabis use, cannabis use disorder and symptoms of psychosis, depression and anxiety in an adolescent and adult sample.

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Intimate Partner Violence among Women Who Inject Drugs in Europe

Citation
Tirado-Muñoz, Judit, Gail Gilchrist, Gabriele Fischer, Avril Taylor, Jacek Moskalewicz, Cinzia Giammarchi, Birgit Köchl et al. "Psychiatric comorbidity and intimate partner violence among women who inject drugs in Europe: a cross-sectional study." Archives of women's mental health 21, no. 3 (2018): 259-269.
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It is recognised that women who inject drugs are a highly vulnerable group of people and a section of the population who are at higher risk of showing comorbidities. This further impacts their well-being and can create a barrier to seeking help. There is also a believed link between intimate partner violence frequency and drug use.

Cognitive and Mindfulness‐Based Therapy for Adolescents with Co‐Occurring Post‐Traumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Fortuna, Lisa R., Michelle V. Porche, and Auralyd Padilla. "A treatment development study of a cognitive and mindfulness‐based therapy for adolescents with co‐occurring post‐traumatic stress and substance use disorder." Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 91, no. 1 (2018): 42-62.
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Early life experiences of trauma are known to significantly increase the risk of substance use in adolescence and adulthood.

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users in Three Vietnamese Mountainous Provinces

Citation
Nguyen et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:3 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0191-8
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Abstract

Background

Globally, people who inject drugs are highly vulnerable to HIV transmission. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs are one of the most cost-effective mechanisms to substitute opioid use and improve the quality of life of patients.

Overview of European Forensic Youth Care: Towards an Integrative Mission for Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Juvenile Offenders

Citation
Souverein et al. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (2019) 13:6 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-019-0265-4
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Abstract

All over Europe youth delinquency is decreasing; our understanding of the factors related to juvenile delinquency and the characteristics of effective forensic youth care has increased substantially.

Evaluación del programa "Familias fuertes: amor y límites" en familias con adolescentes de 10 a 14 años

Citation
Corea, V., Loreto, M., Zubarew, T., Valenzuela, M., Teresa, M., & Salas, F. (2012). Evaluación del programa" Familias fuertes: amor y límites" en familias con adolescentes de 10 a 14 años. Revista médica de Chile, 140(6), 726-731.
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Background: "Strong Families" is a family program aimed at preventing risk behaviors in adolescents from 10 to 14 years of age. It has been developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and is based on the Iowa Strengthening Families Program. This program has been certified and has been proven to effectively prevent adolescent drug and alcohol abuse in several countries around the globe. 

Managing Alcohol-Related Attendances in Emergency Care: Can Diversion to Bespoke Services Lessen the Burden?

Citation
Irving A, Goodacre S, Blake J, et al Managing alcohol-related attendances in emergency care: can diversion to bespoke services lessen the burden? Emerg Med J 2018;35:79-82.
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Abstract

Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) has a long history of burdening emergency care services. Healthcare systems around the world have explored a variety of different services that divert AAI away from EDs to better manage their condition. Little formal evaluation has been undertaken, particularly in the UK where alcohol misuse is one of the highest in the world.

Conditional Probabilities of Substance Use Disorders and Associated Risk Factors

Citation
Marel, C., Sunderland, M., Mills, K. L., Slade, T., Teesson, M., & Chapman, C. (2019). Conditional probabilities of substance use disorders and associated risk factors: Progression from first use to use disorder on alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, sedatives and opioids. Drug and alcohol dependence, 194, 136-142.
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Highlights

Pre-existing mental disorders increases the risk of developing SUD.

Dopamine Neurons Projecting to Medial Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Heroin Reinforcement

Citation
Corre, J., van Zessen, R., Loureiro, M., Patriarchi, T., Tian, L., Pascoli, V., & Lüscher, C. (2018). Dopamine neurons projecting to medial shell of the nucleus accumbens drive heroin reinforcement. eLife, 7, e39945.
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Abstract

The dopamine (DA) hypothesis posits the increase of mesolimbic dopamine levels as a defining commonality of addictive drugs, initially causing reinforcement, eventually leading to compulsive consumption. While much experimental evidence from psychostimulants supports this hypothesis, it has been challenged for opioid reinforcement.

Sex-Dependent Effects of in Utero Cannabinoid Exposure on Cortical Function

Citation
Bara, A., Manduca, A., Bernabeu, A., Borsoi, M., Serviado, M., Lassalle, O., ... & Trezza, V. (2018). Sex-dependent effects of in utero cannabinoid exposure on cortical function. eLife, 7, e36234.
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Abstract

Cannabinoids can cross the placenta, thus may interfere with fetal endocannabinoid signaling during neurodevelopment, causing long-lasting deficits. Despite increasing reports of cannabis consumption during pregnancy, the protracted consequences of prenatal cannabinoid exposure (PCE) remain incompletely understood.

Cannabis Use and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Citation
Vaucher, J., Keating, B. J., Lasserre, A. M., Gan, W., Lyall, D. M., Ward, J., ... & Holmes, M. V. (2017). Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study. Molecular psychiatry.
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Abstract

Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia.