- Poland’s National Health Programme was adopted in 2016 and has a five-year timeframe.
- It has a comprehensive approach to public health issues, functioning as the national drug and drug addiction strategy.
- The scope of the strategy includes ‘prevention and problem-solving related to the use of psychoactive substances behavioural addictions and other risky behaviours’.
- It has five key foci: (i) prevention; (ii) treatment, rehabilitation, harm reduction and social reintegration; (iii) supply reduction; (iv) international cooperation; and (v) research and monitoring.
- Notable measures of the National Programme focusing on substance use treatment aim to increase the availability of outpatient drug services, OST programmes and HIV- and HCV-related infectious disease treatment programmes.
- The system of specialised drug services is integrated into mental healthcare.
- Communities and provinces are responsible for the implementation of drug treatment.
- Treatment at private clinics or from private practitioners is also available at an additional fee.
- Drug treatment services are provided by inpatient and outpatient treatment centres, detoxification wards, day-care centres, drug treatment wards in hospitals, mid-term and long-term drug rehabilitation facilities, drug wards in prisons and post-rehabilitation programmes.
- Treatment is delivered by mental health counselling or alcohol rehabilitation clinics in territories where there are no specialised drug treatment services.
- The treatment system in Poland has two approaches: ‘drug- free’ treatment (psychosocial models) and pharmacological treatment (i.e. OST). The former model prevails and includes therapeutic communities, cognitive- behavioural psychotherapy, 12-step programmes, case management and self-help groups.
- Outpatient and inpatient drug treatment are mainly delivered by NGOs, followed by public services and private providers.
- Detoxification is normally provided by public services and by private clinics and physicians.
- Polish post-rehabilitation programmes are also implemented mainly by NGOs and subsidised by the state.
- Given the changing profile of treatment clients, in recent years a new treatment programme, CANDIS, aimed at cannabis users, has been promoted.
- OST with methadone has been available 1993. Only public health care units that have received permission from the governor of the region, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, can deliver OST. NGOs can also establish and carry out OST.
- Until the end of 2016, drug prevention activities were governed by the national programme for 2011-16, which aimed to reduce the demand for drugs in Polish society.
- A major element of the national programme was added emphasis on improving the quality of drug prevention programmes, together with the competencies of programme providers.
- Prevention activities are implemented by government administration units, as well as local and regional governments.
- The Ministry of National Education is responsible for universal drug prevention in schools.
- An Anti-Drug Action Plan has been adopted to improve the quality of drug prevention activities in schools and educational facilities.
- Prevention interventions encompass a wide range of complementary approaches, which are complementary.
- Schools are obliged to implement a school-based prevention programme for children and young people.
- Health education is part of the core curriculum.
- In 2015, The National Bureau for Drug Prevention supported a number of programmes for parents.
- Selective prevention programmes focus on risk reduction, together with the promotion of healthy lifestyles and assistance in crises related to substance use for socially excluded children and adolescents.
- Indicated prevention activities normally encourage and help to maintain abstinence from drugs, or else prevent further development of substance dependence by promoting healthy lifestyles.