Urdu translation and psychometric properties of WHO-Five Wellbeing Index among male patients with substance use disorders in Pakistan



The present study aims to translate and adapt the WHO-Five Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) into the Urdu language and then determine its psychometric properties.


Male participants (N = 201) between 18 and 45 years old (M = 29.56 years, SD = 7.80) were recruited from substance use disorder treatment centers and hospitals in Karachi... Participants completed a Personal Information Form, The WHO-5, Self-Esteem Scale, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale in Urdu.


The Cronbach’s alpha for the WHO Wellbeing Index (Cronbach’s alpha = .80) is adequate. Similarly, both the Self Esteem (Cronbach’s alpha = .86) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale total (Cronbach’s alpha = .94) had adequate internal consistency. Further, Cronbach’s alpha for subscales (depression = .88, anxiety = .91, stress = .82) was also adequate. A higher level of well-being is significantly positively associated with self-esteem (r = .275, p < .001) and negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress (r = −.307, p < .001).


The Urdu version of WHO-5 is a reliable measure for investigating well-being in male patients receiving treatment for substance use disorders in Pakistan who speak Urdu.

Shahzad, S., Jones, H., Begum, N., Zia, A. (2021). Urdu Translation and Adaptation of WHO-5 Wellbeing Index in patients with Substance Use Disorder in Pakistan. Journal of Substance Use, 26(6), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/14659891.2021.200633
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