Over the past decade there has been an increase in the manufacture and use of psychostimulants in countries around the world. Around two-thirds of illicit psychostimulant users are male with average age of use for methamphetamine and cocaine being in the mid-30s, and for MDMA in the mid-20s.
El ácido γ-aminobutírico (GABA) es el principal neurotransmisor inhibitorio del sistema nervioso central (SNC) de los mamíferos y ejerce su acción a partir de la activación de tres receptores distintos. El receptor GABAB es una heterodímero con dos subunidades de siete dominios transmembranales, caracterizado en la década de 1970, y que ha sido ampliamente estudiado con relación a diferentes tipos de enfermedades.
MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception (awareness of surrounding objects and conditions). MDMA was initially a common nightlife drug, but it affects a broader range of people.
The dopamine (DA) hypothesis posits the increase of mesolimbic dopamine levels as a defining commonality of addictive drugs, initially causing reinforcement, eventually leading to compulsive consumption. While much experimental evidence from psychostimulants supports this hypothesis, it has been challenged for opioid reinforcement.
Our thoughts, feelings and behaviour are controlled by a complex messenger system made of chemicals called neurotransmitters.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) evaluates salience of environmental stimuli and provides dopaminergic innervation to many brain areas affected by acute and chronic ethanol exposure. While primarily associated with rewarding and reinforcing stimuli, recent evidence indicates a role for the VTA in aversion as well.
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several phenomena related to addictive behaviors, and drug‐induced changes in eCB signaling have been postulated to be important mediators of physiological and pathological reward‐related synaptic plasticity.
On the Physiology of Jouissance: Interpreting the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Reward Functions from a Psychoanalytic Perspective
Jouissance is a Lacanian concept, infamous for being impervious to understanding and which expresses the paradoxical satisfaction that a subject may derive from his symptom.
Adenosine receptors (AR) are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation.