dopamine

Psychostimulant Use and the Brain

Citation
Lappin, Julia M., and Grant E. Sara. "Psychostimulant use and the brain." Addiction (2019).
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Over the past decade there has been an increase in the manufacture and use of psychostimulants in countries around the world. Around two-thirds of illicit psychostimulant users are male with average age of use for methamphetamine and cocaine being in the mid-30s, and for MDMA in the mid-20s.

Relevancia clínica de los receptores GABA-b en el tratamiento de la adicción a las drogas

Citation
Cedillo-Zavaleta, L. N., Ruíz-García, I., Jiménez-Mejía, J. C., & Miranda-Herrera, F. (2019). Relevancia clínica de los receptores GABAB en el tratamiento de la adicción a las drogas. Revista Mexicana de Neurociencia, 19(6), 32-42.
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Resumen

El ácido γ-aminobutírico (GABA) es el principal neurotransmisor inhibitorio del sistema nervioso central (SNC) de los mamíferos y ejerce su acción a partir de la activación de tres receptores distintos. El receptor GABAB es una heterodímero con dos subunidades de siete dominios transmembranales, caracterizado en la década de 1970, y que ha sido ampliamente estudiado con relación a diferentes tipos de enfermedades.

How does MDMA Kill?

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MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception (awareness of surrounding objects and conditions). MDMA was initially a common nightlife drug, but it affects a broader range of people.

Dopamine Neurons Projecting to Medial Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Heroin Reinforcement

Citation
Corre, J., van Zessen, R., Loureiro, M., Patriarchi, T., Tian, L., Pascoli, V., & Lüscher, C. (2018). Dopamine neurons projecting to medial shell of the nucleus accumbens drive heroin reinforcement. eLife, 7, e39945.
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Abstract

The dopamine (DA) hypothesis posits the increase of mesolimbic dopamine levels as a defining commonality of addictive drugs, initially causing reinforcement, eventually leading to compulsive consumption. While much experimental evidence from psychostimulants supports this hypothesis, it has been challenged for opioid reinforcement.

The Mechanism Behind Alcohol Addiction

Citation
You, C., Savarese, A., Vandegrift, B. J., He, D., Pandey, S. C., Lasek, A. W., & Brodie, M. S. (2018). Ethanol acts on KCNK13 potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area to increase firing rate and modulate binge–like drinking. Neuropharmacology.
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Neurons are highly specialised cells that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurons are highly specialised cells that receive, processes, and transmit information, within the br

Ethanol Actions on the Ventral Tegmental Area: Novel Potential Targets on Reward Pathway Neurons

Citation
You, C., Vandegrift, B. & Brodie, M.S. Psychopharmacology (2018) 235: 1711. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4875-y
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Abstract

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) evaluates salience of environmental stimuli and provides dopaminergic innervation to many brain areas affected by acute and chronic ethanol exposure. While primarily associated with rewarding and reinforcing stimuli, recent evidence indicates a role for the VTA in aversion as well.

Acute and Chronic Modulation of Striatal Endocannabinoid‐Mediated Plasticity by Nicotine

Citation
Adermark, L., Morud, J., Lotfi, A., Ericson, M., and Söderpalm, B. (2018) Acute and chronic modulation of striatal endocannabinoid‐mediated plasticity by nicotine. Addiction Biology, doi: 10.1111/adb.12598.
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Abstract

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several phenomena related to addictive behaviors, and drug‐induced changes in eCB signaling have been postulated to be important mediators of physiological and pathological reward‐related synaptic plasticity.

On the Physiology of Jouissance: Interpreting the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Reward Functions from a Psychoanalytic Perspective

Citation
Bazan A and Detandt S (2013) On the physiology of jouissance: interpreting the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward functions from a psychoanalytic perspective. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:709. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00709
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Jouissance is a Lacanian concept, infamous for being impervious to understanding and which expresses the paradoxical satisfaction that a subject may derive from his symptom.

The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

Citation
Ballesteros-Yáñez I, Castillo CA, Merighi S and Gessi S (2018) The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction. Front. Pharmacol. 8:985. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00985
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Adenosine receptors (AR) are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation.