Publication Date
Published by / Citation
Thomas Clausen and Ashley Elizabeth Muller
Original Language


Opioid Substitution Treatment
Medication-assisted treatment
treatment retention

The Use of Non-Prescribed Benzodiazepines and/or Amphetamines Predict Treatment Instability in Opioid Maintenance Treatment

INTRODUCTION: Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is a long-term intervention aiming at stability and reduced risk for patients. This project aims to estimate the 1-year drop-out rate of from OMT and to investigate factors associated with drop-out from OMT.

METHODS: 14 OMT clinics recruited 174 patients entering OMT between 2012-5 in Norway and provided data about substance use, addiction severity, mental health, self-control and quality of life. One year after inclusion, treatment retention was established. Logistic regression was run to determine which baseline variables (with significant bivariate relationships) increased patients’ likelihood of drop-out within one year.

RESULTS: 131 (75%) had been continuously in treatment for one year, while 43 (25%) had dropped out or dropped out and re-entered. Reporting non-prescribed benzodiazepines (OR 2.1) and/or amphetamines (OR 4.1) among their 4 most used drugs during the 4 weeks prior to treatment inclusion, were associated with drop-out. Self-control and low education were significant variables in bivariate analyses but were not retained in the final adjusted model (R2=0.16).

CONCLUSION: ¾ of Norwegian OMT patients continue stable, non-interrupted OMT for at least one year. Still treatment providers should apply approaches to reduce non-prescribed benzodiazepines and amphetamines while in OMT, to promote long-term stability in OMT to increase retention.

Share the Knowledge: ISSUP members can post in the Knowledge Share – Sign in or become a member