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Health, Economic and Educational Trajectory Research in the Processes of Addiction Research

Dear readers,

This issue of the journal presents many interesting articles on various topics related to addiction. Mutual sign of research studies, despite their different thematic focus, is to show how important is to examine the determinants of creation and development of addiction in various population groups, and also how important prevention programs are. Even if prevention is explicitly not the main aim of these studies, the results presented in the research declare an importance of prevention and formation of efficient drug policies.

Health is the most important value for each individual and for entire society, as well. Healthy individuals live in healthy society who may develop in healthy society. Health always reflects many factors. The first group is composed of those factors that reflect a maturity level of individual and/or society. The second group includes those factors that reflect a state level. Health determinants are characteristics and indicators that influence presence and development of risk factors of individual illnesses. Each illness is connected with multiple risk factors whose presence decides of creation and development of an illness. Risk factors may be specific for each illness, but many illnesses may even have the same risk factors. Presence of risk factors may be supported by a defined environment where they occur. Substance abuse is considered as very significant risk factor. Drugs have be- come a major problem of contemporary society. In the past, the notion ‘drug’ had been related to Western countries. In the last decades, many foreign countries have been facing, so-called addiction to hard drugs. Number of drug addicts among young people, and also among people in the work- ing age constantly increases. Therefore, society has to look for more active prevention programs for different population groups. Generally, there needs to be a reason why a person uses a drug and later, this person becomes an addict. In most of the case, people who have problems, and/or who are not able to resolve them, and/or who dealt with difficult life situations use a drug. On the other hand, curiosity, recession, and also influence of various groups may have a connection with using drugs. Family and environment play very important role in one’s life. Family is crucial in shaping the personality of young adult and it also influences his/her development by good parenting and by parenting in harmonious family relationships. Negative family environment is considered as high-risk environment for creation and development of addiction among youth. Its consequences have traces even in the adulthood. Many research studies examine relations between different social groups and occupations and development of addiction. Many occupations are connected with high risk of addiction creation e.g., employees in healthcare (due to easier access to drugs), artists (need for inspiration, uniqueness), bartenders and employees at night clubs (more frequent contact with drugs), drivers, students, pilots (increase of work performance). Thus, it is very important

to thoroughly examine the factors that lead to creation and development of addiction in difference population groups in order to set prevention programs for various demographic and social population groups. The role of drug centres and institutions, that are accessible in the individual regions, may significantly impact the development of addiction of a population in a given region. The following factors are important in the processes of addiction elimination: awareness, high-quality prevention programs implemented on different levels of education and health literacy rate. Once relevant data, monitoring activities and evaluation systems, that pro- vide a picture of entire status and development of addiction, are available, then high-quality awareness and prevention programs are possible. Similarly, research teams, their studies and sharing of their results play an important role. Studies in this journal’s issue offer many interesting results.

In the first study, authors examine Preference and Behaviour Change Regarding Selected Performance-Enhancing Anabolic Androgenic Substances and Steroids in the Context of the Global COVID-19 Pandemic. Authors prove that a source of supply to selected anabolic androgenic substances is decisive in their use. The most frequent source of supply of these substances was an on-line purchase during the COV- ID-19 pandemic. Marketing strategies will always represent an important factor in the processes of availability of such addictive legal drugs and their impact on population may be more intense at the times of social and public changes. The same authors examine similar theme in their next study, where they analyse an impact of monthly incomes on information retrieval and on changes in preferences and behaviour regarding selected performance-enhancing anabolic androgens and steroids before and after the global COVID-19 pandemic. The study results show that the monthly incomes of the respondents do not affect their potential interest in information retrieval and subsequent possible changes in their preferences and behaviour regarding selected performance-enhancing anabolic androgens and steroids before and after the global pandemic.

Family and environment, where an individual develops, play an important role in the processes of creation and development of addiction. The second study deals with the above-mentioned topic. Its aim was to identify and to de- scribe factors affecting the psychosocial development of an individual in a family with a parent with a long-term ad- diction in relation to the development of a criminal career. Authors emphasised the need for resilience in the family and its resistance to stress-generating factors represented unequivocally by the meaning categories of the ACE model. Also, these facts are very important in creation of efficient prevention programs that focus on families and young population. The study, Translational Research on the Effects of Treatment with Cannabidiol in Addictions, deals with medical aspects. Author describes effects of treatment with Cannabidiol in addictions in detail and recommends further re- search for verification of the suitability of the indication of Cannabidiol for the treatment of addictions. Similarly, it is important to examine social and economic aspects of use of addictive substances except of medical aspects.

In a review study, authors describe economic and social con- sequences of alcohol consumption. Authors used scientific data out of 50 scientific studies and they discovered that alcohol consumption is influenced by the drinking culture, which differs from country to country and from society to society. The population should be educated about alcohol and its consumption should be monitored responsibly. Authors strongly appeal to an importance of prevention programs and to a creation of adequate drug policies.

The last study provides information of a planned research which focuses on Comprehensive Evaluation of the Online Lifelong Education Course Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders for Physicians in the Czech Republic. The aim of research in the study protocol is to assess the quality of a newly prepared e-learning course of the First Faculty of Medicine at Charles University for addictology education for physicians and the attitudes of physicians to the selected group of addictive substances and their users. The measured attitudes will be compared mutually between the course participants and a control group, and they will also be compared with those of the general public. Research will be performed in the coming three years and its main aim will be the assessment of learning outcomes.

Research studies, review study, and information provided in the study protocol present new perspectives on research of population addiction and the studies emphasise a strong need for transfer of research knowledge into practice, their sharing with specialists in medical sphere, and also with creators of relevant policies. Also, these studies create a plat- form for new research cooperation and for development of efficient prevention systems.

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