The Turkish strategy’s emphasis is on drug demand and supply reduction.
Its key areas focus include: preventing access to drugs; taking measures in relation to educational institutions; identifying target groups; anti-drug counselling units; strengthening treatment for drug dependence; social reintegration; scientific advisory boards for anti-drug activities; anti-drug decision support systems; legislation for anti-drug activities; coordination and cooperation; communication with the public; and diagnosis and laboratory services.
Current treatment objectives emphasise help drug users to access available services that satisfy established standards and protocols.
Drug treatment is provided through the Alcohol-Substance Addiction Research, Therapy and Education Centres (AMATEMs), psychiatric clinics of public hospitals under the Ministry of Health and university-based treatment units. Some private hospitals also provide treatment provisions.
These institutions normally provide both inpatient and outpatient care.
Treatment services are usually paid for by the state through social or health insurance funds.
Most drug treatment services treat addiction more generally, inclusive of both alcohol and illicit drug use.
The primary approach of treatment services is to help clients become drug-free.
Detoxification is a key focus. It is often complemented by other interventions, such as motivational interviewing techniques, as well as cognitive therapies. The latter look to prevent relapse.
There is the availability of pharmacological treatment with opioid agonists or an antagonist.
Short-term residential treatment is offered by some treatment centres and NGOs treatment communities.
Opioid substitution treatment (OST) using buprenorphine-based medication has been available since 2010. Methadone and levacetylmethadol (LAAM) are also available.
All treatment centres licensed by the Ministry of Health can implement OST.
The majority of the cost of OST medication is covered by general health insurance. Clients contribute the difference, which is usually around 20%.
Prevention interventions encompass a wide range of complementary approaches.
The main prevention initiatives focus on increasing people’s awareness of drugs and information dissemination.
Several interventions aim to increase individual and social skills among young people. Others target vulnerable populations.
Universal drug prevention interventions are carried out in schools.
There are several NGOs that support prevention interventions which target young people.
Prevention methods used include seminars, discussion panels and conferences, as well as counselling support services.
Manual-based programmes are rare.
School counselling centres provide family-oriented prevention.
Prevention initiatives usually informative campaigns at the community level.
Selective prevention interventions are limited. Those that do exist generally aim to raise awareness and provide access to information.
Social assistance and treatment referrals to for homeless children and young people can be provided by Social Services Centres.