Effects of morbidity on smoking cessation: a national smoking cessation program
In smokers with chronic diseases, we examined the abstinence rates over 6 months and its affecting factors in the context of the Korea National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) smoking cessation program.
To identify 6-month abstinence, we extracted a sample of 15,017 participants using the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method from the 359,047 individuals enrolled in the 2016 NHIS smoking cessation program and 1500 smokers responded to the telephone survey. From this group, 1245 individuals (48.50 ± 12.55 years; men 89.8%) were enrolled, as they had no missing information for confounding variables. We compared chronic disease distribution between participants and current smokers in the 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We evaluated the factors affecting continuous abstinence rate (CAR) across patients with different chronic diseases: hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia (DL), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and major depressive disorder (MDD).
While participation of DM patients was high, the participation of DL patients was relatively low. The CAR over 6 months was 44.74%. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for continuous abstinence over 6 months was significantly lower in the MDD group than in the no-MDD group (OR 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.85). The factors of program completion (complete versus incomplete: OR 3.11, 95% CI 2.43 to 3.98), region (non-metropolitan areas versus Seoul metropolitan area: OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.61), and nicotine dependence (severe versus light or moderate: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83) were significantly associated with CAR.
The smoking cessation program was not actively recruiting smokers with chronic diseases. The CARs in each disease group were not different from those in the non-disease groups, except that the MDD group had a lower CAR over 6 months than the no-MDD group. Recruiting smokers with chronic diseases and improving their CARs depends on the careful identification of their characteristics.