Epidemiology and Etiology

World Drug Report 2021

Published by
UNODC
Publication Date
Consisting of five separate booklets, the World Drug Report 2021 provides an in-depth analysis of the global drug markets and paints a comprehensive picture of the measurable effects and potential impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the world drug problem.

Trends in use of e-cigarette device types and heated tobacco products from 2016 to 2020 in England

Citation
Tattan-Birch, H., Brown, J., Shahab, L. et al. Trends in use of e-cigarette device types and heated tobacco products from 2016 to 2020 in England. Sci Rep 11, 13203 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92617-x
Publication Date

During the past decade, heated aerosolized nicotine delivery systems (HANDS) —mainly e-cigarettes—have surpassed nicotine replacement therapy as the most utilized aids for stopping smoking in England.

Global burden of cancer in 2020 attributable to alcohol consumption

Citation
Rumgay, H., Shield, K., Charvat, H., Ferrari, P., Sornpaisarn, B., Obot, I., ... & Soerjomataram, I. (2021). Global Burden of Cancer in 2020 Attributable to Alcohol Consumption: A Population-Based Study.

​​​​​​Each year there are 3 million deaths as a result of the harmful use of alcohol.

As alcohol gets broken down, chemicals affect the way our body sends signals and communicates and increase the chances of developing cancer.

In this article, published in Lancet Oncology, the researchers present global, regional, and national estimates of alcohol-attributable cancer burden in 2020.

Findings:

Adolescent drug use before and during U.S. national COVID-19 social distancing policies

Citation
Miech, R., Patrick, M. E., Keyes, K., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. (2021). Adolescent Drug Use Before and During US National COVID-19 Social Distancing Policies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108822.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world have introduced lockdown restrictions and social distancing measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Researchers are keen to understand how these policies and new measures have influenced drinking behaviours within particular groups.

Lower regional grey matter in alcohol use disorders: evidence from a voxel-based meta-analysis

Citation
Li, L., Yu, H., Liu, Y. et al. Lower regional grey matter in alcohol use disorders: evidence from a voxel-based meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 21, 247 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03244-9
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Background:

Previous research using whole-brain neuroimaging techniques has revealed structural differences of grey matter (GM) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. However, some of the findings diverge from other neuroimaging studies and require further replication.

Intimate-Partner Violence and its Relationship With Substance Consumption by Mexican Men and Women: National Survey on Addictions

Citation
Natera Rey, G., Moreno López, M., Toledano-Toledano, F., Juárez García, F., & Villatoro Velázquez, J. (2021). Intimate-partner violence and its relationship with substance consumption by Mexican men and women: National Survey on Addictions. Salud Mental, 44(3), 135-143. doi:https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2021.018

Abstract

Introduction: Research findings about intimate-partner violence (IPV) have focused mostly on women as victims of violence. Recent studies show the importance of violence inflicted by women towards men or between same-sex couples.

Association of genetic liability to smoking initiation with e-cigarette use in young adults: A cohort study

Citation
Khouja JN, Wootton RE, Taylor AE, Davey Smith G, Munafò MR (2021) Association of genetic liability to smoking initiation with e-cigarette use in young adults: A cohort study. PLoS Med 18(3): e1003555.
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Background:

Tobacco smoking and e-cigarette use are strongly associated, but it is currently unclear whether this association is causal, or due to shared factors that influence both behaviours such as a shared genetic liability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for smoking initiation are associated with ever use of e-cigarettes.

 

Disentangling substance use and related problems: urgency predicts substance-related problems beyond the degree of use

Citation
Hildebrandt, M.K., Dieterich, R. & Endrass, T. Disentangling substance use and related problems: urgency predicts substance-related problems beyond the degree of use. BMC Psychiatry 21, 242 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03240-z
Publication Date

Background:

Substance use disorders are reliably associated with high impulsivity and sensation seeking. Importantly, both precede problematic substance use, implicating them as risk factors. Individuals with substance use disorders show variable degrees of substance use (combined quantity and frequency) and substance-related problems and differ in both aspects from healthy controls.

A randomised, double-blind study investigating the relationship between early childhood trauma and the rewarding effects of morphine

Citation
Carlyle, M, Broomby, R, Simpson, G, et al. A randomised, double-blind study investigating the relationship between early childhood trauma and the rewarding effects of morphine. Addiction Biology. 2021;e13047. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.13047
Publication Date

Experiences of childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) are disproportionately higher in those with opioid use disorder (OUD).

Childhood trauma may affect the reinforcing and rewarding properties of opioid drugs and responses to pain, potentially via developmental changes to the endogenous opioid system. This has been supported by preclinical research, yet this has not been investigated in non-addicted humans.