Research

For Whom Does Prison-Based Drug Treatment Work? Results from a Randomized Experiment

Citation
Journal of Experimental Criminology June 2014, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 151–177
Publication Date

For the first time in a prison setting, a randomised trial has rigorously compared intensive residential therapeutic community treatment to outpatient counselling. Confounding expectations, the US prison for problem drug users which hosted the study gained no recidivism dividend by allocating even high-risk prisoners to intensive treatment.

'Pre-Drinks': The Possible Dangers of a Growing Cultural Phenomenon

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Preloading with alcohol, or ‘pre-drinking’, before a night out is becoming more and more common. New research carried out in a night-life district in Queensland, Australia, has looked to gauge the extent of ‘pre-drinking’. The study reports almost 80% of people asked consumed alcohol prior to going out, with around 70% registering high blood-alcohol content before reaching their intended entertainment destination. The study also found little v

Receptivity to Tobacco Ads Linked to Smoking Susceptibility Among Youth

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There is a strong link between receptivity to tobacco product advertisements and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes later in life, according to new research published in the journal PediatricsPut simply, the study suggests that the more an adolescent likes a tobacco ad, the more likely he/she is to try smoking in the future.

Parental Absence in Early Childhood and Onset of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before Adolescence

Citation
Lacey RE, Zilanawala A, Webb E, et al Parental absence in early childhood and onset of smoking and alcohol consumption before adolescence Archives of Disease in Childhood Published Online First: 10 October 2016. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-310444
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Abstract

Background: Parental absence, due to death or separation from a parent, has been associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental absence in early childhood was associated with smoking and alcohol uptake before adolescence.

Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking among Students — Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2012–2015

Citation
Arrazola RA, Ahluwalia IB, Pun E, Garcia de Quevedo I, Babb S, Armour BS. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13–15 Years — Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:533–537. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6620a3
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence.

What is added by this report?

Do α2-Adrenergic Agonists Decrease the Symptoms Associated With Opioid Withdrawal?

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Study Selection

This systematic review included randomized controlled clinical trials that compared the administration of an α2-adernergic agonist with other interventions such as placebo or methadone to reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Outcomes included withdrawal signs and symptoms, adverse effects, or treatment course completion.

Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care across Europe

Citation
Colin Angus, Chloe Thomas, Peter Anderson, Petra S. Meier, Alan Brennan; Estimating the cost-effectiveness of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care across Europe. Eur J Public Health 2017; 27 (2): 345-351. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw122
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Background

Screening and brief interventions for alcohol are an effective public health measure to tackle alcohol-related harm, however relatively few countries across the European Union (EU) have implemented them widely. This may be due to a lack of understanding of the specific financial implications of such policies within each country.

Methods

Non-Medicinal Ritalin Use: Study Enhanced, But Taking a Chance

Publication Date

New research published in the Journal of Neural Transmission highlights a number of potential adverse side-effects from using the stimulant drug Ritalin without a prescription. Ritalin (Methylphenidate) is medically used to treat Attention Deficient Hyper-Activity Disorder (ADHD). However, we also know that the drug is being increasingly used by students to aid concentration.

Gender-Specific Predictors of At-Risk Adolescents’ Hazardous Alcohol Use

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Abstract

Background

Previous research has found strong associations between adolescents’ hazardous alcohol use and their perception of peer behavior, as well as own spending money and a range of antisocial behaviors. However, there is insufficient evidence of gender-specific predictors among adolescents with elevated antisocial behavior and alcohol use to design effective selective interventions.

Excessive Drinking: More a Result of Low Socioeconomic Status Than Access to Alcohol?

Publication Date

Among US neighbourhoods, poverty and disorganisation, that is high levels of crime, drug trafficking and graffiti etc., may increase the risk of problem drinking, more so than the presence of bars or stores that sell alcohol.

In other words, socioeconomic factors could play a more significant role in excessive alcohol consumption than the availability of the substance itself.

Treatment of Skid-Row Alcoholics with Disulfiram

Citation
Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol: 1966, 27(1), p. 42-48.
Publication Date

Conducted in 1962 and 1963 in Atlanta in the USA, the featured article seems the first to have tested whether problem-drinking offenders will take a drug which enforces abstinence by generating deterrent reactions to alcohol, if the alternative is a criminal justice sanction. Read more...

Managing Depressive Symptoms in the Workplace Using a Web-Based Self-Care Tool

Citation
Hirsch A, Luellen J, Holder JM, Steinberg G, Dubiel T, Blazejowskyj A, Schladweiler K Managing Depressive Symptoms in the Workplace Using a Web-Based Self-Care Tool: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial JMIR Res Protoc 2017;6(4):e51 DOI: 10.2196/resprot.7203
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Abstract

Background: Depression in the workplace creates a significant burden on employees and employers in terms of lost productivity and related costs. myStrength provides a robust, holistic web- and mobile-based solution empowering users to learn, practice, and implement a range of evidence-based psychological interventions.

Adult Substance Misuse Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS)

Citation
Adult substance misuse statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016. Public Health England, 2016
Publication Date

This report brings together information on people receiving specialist interventions for drug problems and for problem drinking in England, other than patients receiving this treatment in prison.

State HCV Incidence and Policies Related to HCV Preventive and Treatment Services for Persons Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2016

Citation
Campbell CA, Canary L, Smith N, Teshale E, Ryerson AB, Ward JW. State HCV Incidence and Policies Related to HCV Preventive and Treatment Services for Persons Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:465–469. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a2
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

The United States has experienced a sharp increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence that can be attributed to injection drug use. Some states have used public health laws and treatment policies to reduce the risk for transmission of HCV infections among persons who inject drugs.

What is added by this report?

Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students — United States, 1991–2015

Citation
Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD. Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students — United States, 1991–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:474–478. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6618a4
Publication Date

Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Each year from 2006 to 2010, excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 deaths among persons aged <21 years, and, in 2010, underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion.

Does the Effect of Alcohol on the Brain Differ between Men and Women?

Publication Date

New research published in the journal Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging has found that the effects of alcohol on the reward system in the brain may differ between men and women.

The reward system is a grouped structure in the brain that reinforces positive experiences and is involved in memory formation as well as complex decision-making. It is also implicated in the development of substance use disorders.

Aggression Linked to Substance Use

Publication Date

New Research published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry has found that people with intermittent explosive disorder (IED) – a condition with a significant genetic component characterised by regular outbursts of aggression, whether physical or verbal – are 5 times more likely to abuse substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana.