Incarceration Impacts Cognitive Performance, and Prisoner Status Matters
Abstract Globally, incarceration is understood to impoverish the wellbeing of prisoners, but evidence for its impact on cognitive performance is less popular. As most evidence
Drug abuse and violence both are dangerous phenomena in all countries. The relation between drug abuse and violence is obscure, and what comes first is the question. This study clarifies the changes in drug abuse patterns in Upper Egypt and the association between drug abuse and different types of violence.
It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly misused drugs such as psychostimulants, alcohol, and nicotine.
What is already known about this topic?
An outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) of unknown source is ongoing in the United States.
What is added by this report?
Youth unemployment has remained stable at a high-level in many countries over the past several decades.
Over the same period, evidence has emerged which suggests that unemployment can negatively affect an individual’s mental and physical health.
This, in turn, makes unemployment a significant public health issue.
Over the years, there has been a global decline in tobacco consumption, and countries have made significant progress in developing evidence-based and cost-effective tobacco control measures. As a result, tobacco industries have had to develop new products and be creative in the way they market their merchandise.
Tobacco contains nicotine, which is highly addictive and can cause dependence. Although many people understand the negative health consequences of smoking for themselves and those around them, cutting down or stopping smoking can be highly challenging.
Background: For the World Health Organization, electronic health (eHealth) is seen as an effective way to improve therapeutic practices and disease prevention in health. Digital tools lead to major changes in the field of mental medicine, but specific analyses are required to understand and accompany these changes.
Harmful use of alcohol kills more than 3 million people each year. 35 million people are estimated to be suffering from drug use disorders. Tobacco contributes to the death of more than 8 million people a year around the world.
It is important that people who have substance use problems receive interventions that are of high quality, ethical and have strong evidence-base.
Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs.
Paper is open source. Abstract copied from paper:
This paper presents the results of a study on the factors promoting the rehabilitation of adolescents treated for paco addiction, from the point of view of resilience, i.e. the understanding and ability to cope with life's difficulties, overcome them and be transformed positively by them.
Increased expectations for the use of evidence‐based methods in addiction treatment have fueled a debate regarding the relative importance of ‘specific’ versus ‘common’ factors in treatment outcome. This review explores the influence of these factors on addiction treatment outcome.
To investigate the role of the therapeutic alliance in predicting length of retention in residential drug treatment.
Background: In the past two decades, a number of studies investigating the role of the therapeutic alliance in drug treatment have been published and it is timely that their findings are brought together in a comprehensive review.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the prevalence of the use and abuse of alcohol in high school students in Buenos Aires City. During October 2014, 2870 surveys were collected on a representative sample, probabilistic and two-stages type, of the population of young people in both public and private high schools.
This meta-analysis of research on medication to treat methamphetamine use disorder finds that only one medication, methylphenidate, has any efficacy in reducing use.
Worldwide, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of opioid-involved overdose deaths.
According to the Spanish Survey on Drug Use in Secondary Schools (ESTUDES), cannabis remains the most used illegal substance among Spanish adolescents, with around 3 out of 10 students reporting lifetime use.
The prevalence of binge drinking- the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time- is increasing across Asia.
Previous research has shown revealed links between heavy drinking and poor mental health outcomes. However, there is a lack of research exploring this association in populations in Asia.
Waterpipe smoking (otherwise known as shisha, hookah, narghile, goza, and hubble bubble ) is an increasing global health concern with evidence suggesting particularly high prevalence amongst adolescents.
Despite clear evidence for the negative impact of waterpipe smoking, it remains unclear how young people perceive the potential harm.
It is well documented that people with severe mental health issues are more likely to smoke compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical wellbeing and is a key modifiable risk factor for health inequality. Despite this, support to stop smoking as part of mental health recovery is limited.
The Journal of Eating and Weight Disorders has put together a topical collection on Food and Addiction.
The collection examines the mechanisms of addiction in relation to eating, gaming and substance use. It also covers research on treatment practices for a range of different populations.
The spatial distribution of substance use services impacts their use, with greater access to services associated with more positive outcomes. Findings from availability of primary healthcare indicate service shortages exist in areas characterized by social deprivation.
Treating severe emotional dysregulation and co-occurring substance misuse is challenging. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive and evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD).
E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine flavourings and other chemicals. They have rapidly become the most favoured form of tobacco among youth in the United States.
There is continued discussion about the safety of e-cigarettes and the link with the initiation of cigarette smoking and tobacco dependence.
Harmful drinking can have severe physical and psychological consequences for the person consuming alcohol. However, the negative impact does not just stop at the individual level.
In recent years, the tobacco pandemic’s magnitude and trajectory has shifted away from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries and so have the tobacco industry’s marketing efforts and tactics.
Research suggests that Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to face the largest growth in tobacco use in the world.
The negative impact of harmful substance use on societies physical and mental wellbeing is a global issue. Substance use disorders are associated with a significant disease burden.