Research

Patterns of Drug Abuse in Upper Egypt: Cause or Result of Violence?

Citation
Yassa, H.A. & Badea, S.T. Egypt J Forensic Sci (2019) 9: 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0117-7
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Abstract

Background

Drug abuse and violence both are dangerous phenomena in all countries. The relation between drug abuse and violence is obscure, and what comes first is the question. This study clarifies the changes in drug abuse patterns in Upper Egypt and the association between drug abuse and different types of violence.

Review of Toluene Actions: Clinical Evidence, Animal Studies, and Molecular Targets

Citation
Cruz, S. L., Rivera-García, M. T., & Woodward, J. J. (2014). Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets. Journal of drug and alcohol research, 3, 235840. doi:10.4303/jdar/235840
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Abstract

It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly misused drugs such as psychostimulants, alcohol, and nicotine.

E-cigarette Use, or Vaping, Practices and Characteristics Among Persons with Associated Lung Injury — Utah, April–October 2019

Citation
Lewis N, McCaffrey K, Sage K, et al. E-cigarette Use, or Vaping, Practices and Characteristics Among Persons with Associated Lung Injury — Utah, April–October 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 22 October 2019. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6842e1
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

An outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) of unknown source is ongoing in the United States.

What is added by this report?

What is the Link Between Unemployment and Alcohol Use?

Citation
Thern, E., Ramstedt, M., and Svensson, J. ( 2019) Long‐term effects of youth unemployment on alcohol‐related morbidity. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14838.
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Youth unemployment has remained stable at a high-level in many countries over the past several decades.

Over the same period, evidence has emerged which suggests that unemployment can negatively affect an individual’s mental and physical health.

This, in turn, makes unemployment a significant public health issue.

Marketing of Heated Tobacco Products in the Czech Republic - The Role of Social Media

Citation
Hejlová, D., Schneiderová, S., Klabíková Rábová, T., Kulhánek, A. (2019). Analysis of Presumed IQOS Influencer Marketing on Instagram in the Czech Republic in 2018–2019. Adiktologie, 19(1), 7–15.

Over the years, there has been a global decline in tobacco consumption, and countries have made significant progress in developing evidence-based and cost-effective tobacco control measures. As a result, tobacco industries have had to develop new products and be creative in the way they market their merchandise.

Decisions to Use E‐cigarettes or Behavioural Support to Quit Tobacco

Citation
Hartwell, G., Egan, M., and Petticrew, M. ( 2019) Understanding decisions to use e‐cigarettes or behavioural support to quit tobacco: a qualitative study of current and ex‐smokers and stop smoking service staff. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14844.
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Tobacco contains nicotine, which is highly addictive and can cause dependence. Although many people understand the negative health consequences of smoking for themselves and those around them, cutting down or stopping smoking can be highly challenging.

Analysis of the Recomposition of Norms and Representations in the Field of Psychiatry and Mental Health in the Age of Electronic Mental Health: Qualitative Study

Citation
Morgiève M, Sebbane D, De Rosario B, Demassiet V, Kabbaj S, Briffault X, Roelandt JL Analysis of the Recomposition of Norms and Representations in the Field of Psychiatry and Mental Health in the Age of Electronic Mental Health: Qualitative Study JMIR Ment Health 2019;6(10):e11665 URL: https://mental.jmir.org/2019/10/e11665 DOI: 10.2196/11665 PMID: 31356151
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ABSTRACT

Background: For the World Health Organization, electronic health (eHealth) is seen as an effective way to improve therapeutic practices and disease prevention in health. Digital tools lead to major changes in the field of mental medicine, but specific analyses are required to understand and accompany these changes.

Motivational Interviewing for Substance Use

Citation
Madson, Michael & Schumacher, Julie & Baer, John & Martino, Steve. (2016). Motivational Interviewing for Substance Use: Mapping Out the Next Generation of Research. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 65. 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.02.003.

Harmful use of alcohol kills more than 3 million people each year. 35 million people are estimated to be suffering from drug use disorders. Tobacco contributes to the death of more than 8 million people a year around the world.

It is important that people who have substance use problems receive interventions that are of high quality, ethical and have strong evidence-base.

The Readiness Ruler as a Measure of Readiness to Change Poly-Drug Use in Drug Abusers

Citation
Hesse, Morten. “The Readiness Ruler as a measure of readiness to change poly-drug use in drug abusers.” Harm reduction journal vol. 3 3. 25 Jan. 2006, doi:10.1186/1477-7517-3-3

Abstract

Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs.

The Forest and the Trees: Relational and Specific Factors in Addiction Treatment

Citation
William R. Miller, Theresa B. Moyers: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12693

Abstract

Aims

Increased expectations for the use of evidence‐based methods in addiction treatment have fueled a debate regarding the relative importance of ‘specific’ versus ‘common’ factors in treatment outcome. This review explores the influence of these factors on addiction treatment outcome.

The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance in the Treatment of Substance Misuse: A Critical Review of the Literature

Citation
Petra S. Meier, Christine Barrowclough, Michael C. Donmall: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00935.x

ABSTRACT

Background: In the past two decades, a number of studies investigating the role of the therapeutic alliance in drug treatment have been published and it is timely that their findings are brought together in a comprehensive review.

Alcohol Abuse in High School Students in Buenos Aires City

Citation
www.acta.org.ar
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The purpose of this study is to characterize the prevalence of the use and abuse of alcohol in high school students in Buenos Aires City. During October 2014, 2870 surveys were collected on a representative sample, probabilistic and two-stages type, of the population of young people in both public and private high schools.

Pharmacotherapy for Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Use Disorder — A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Chan, B., Freeman, M., Kondo, K., Ayers, C., Montgomery, J., Paynter, R., & Kansagara, D. (2019). Pharmacotherapy for Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Use Disorder–A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis. Addiction.
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This meta-analysis of research on medication to treat methamphetamine use disorder finds that only one medication, methylphenidate, has any efficacy in reducing use. 

Cannabis Use among Adolescents: Risk Pattern, Implications and Possible Explanatory Variables

Citation
Rial, A.; Burkhart, G.; Isorna, M.; Barreiro, C.; Varela, J.; Golpe, S. Cannabis use among adolescents: Risk pattern, implications and possible explanatory variables. Adicciones 2018

According to the Spanish Survey on Drug Use in Secondary Schools (ESTUDES), cannabis remains the most used illegal substance among Spanish adolescents, with around 3 out of 10 students reporting lifetime use. 

Prevalence of Binge Drinking in Singapore

Citation
Lee, Y. Y., Wang, P., Abdin, E., Chang, S., Shafie, S., Sambasivam, R., ... & Chong, S. A. (2019). Prevalence of binge drinking and its association with mental health conditions and quality of life in Singapore. Addictive Behaviors, 106114.
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The prevalence of binge drinking- the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time- is increasing across Asia.

Previous research has shown revealed links between heavy drinking and poor mental health outcomes. However, there is a lack of research exploring this association in populations in Asia.

Taking a Stand: An Untapped Strategy to Reduce Waterpipe Smoking in Adolescents

Citation
Rathi Ramji, Maria Nilsson, Bengt Arnetz, Ywonne Wiklund & Judy Arnetz (2019) Taking a Stand: An Untapped Strategy to Reduce Waterpipe Smoking in Adolescents, Substance Use & Misuse, 54:3, 514-524, DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2018.1521429
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Waterpipe smoking (otherwise known as shisha, hookah, narghile, goza, and hubble bubble ) is an increasing global health concern with evidence suggesting particularly high prevalence amongst adolescents.

Despite clear evidence for the negative impact of waterpipe smoking, it remains unclear how young people perceive the potential harm.

Smoking Cessation Intervention for People with Severe Mental Illness

Citation
Gilbody, S., Peckham, E., Bailey, D., Arundel, C., Heron, P., Crosland, S., ... & Bradshaw, T. (2019). Smoking cessation for people with severe mental illness (SCIMITAR+): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(5), 379-390.
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It is well documented that people with severe mental health issues are more likely to smoke compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical wellbeing and is a key modifiable risk factor for health inequality. Despite this, support to stop smoking as part of mental health recovery is limited.  

Effectiveness Bank Analysis: Major Trial of Ways to Extend Brief Alcohol Interventions

Citation
Addiction: 2016, 111(11), p. 1935-1945.
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Could combinations of three strategies - training and support, financial reimbursement, and the opportunity to refer patients to a website - effectively and cost-effectively boost delivery of brief alcohol interventions in five European countries, including England?

Community Social Deprivation and Availability of Substance Use Treatment and Mutual Aid Recovery Groups

Citation
Morton Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:33 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0221-6
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Abstract

Background

The spatial distribution of substance use services impacts their use, with greater access to services associated with more positive outcomes. Findings from availability of primary healthcare indicate service shortages exist in areas characterized by social deprivation.

Does an Adapted Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Skills Training Programme Result in Positive Outcomes for Participants with a Dual Diagnosis? A Mixed Methods Study

Citation
Flynn et al. Addict Sci Clin Pract (2019) 14:28 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-019-0156-2
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Abstract

Background

Treating severe emotional dysregulation and co-occurring substance misuse is challenging. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive and evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD).

Adolescent Cigarettes and E-cigarettes Use

Citation
Azagba, S., Shan, L., & Latham, K. (2019). Adolescent Dual Use Classification and Its Association With Nicotine Dependence and Quit Intentions. Journal of Adolescent Health.
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E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine flavourings and other chemicals. They have rapidly become the most favoured form of tobacco among youth in the United States. 

There is continued discussion about the safety of e-cigarettes and the link with the initiation of cigarette smoking and tobacco dependence.

Alcohol’s Secondhand Harms: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Citation
Nayak, M. B., Patterson, D., Wilsnack, S. C., Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., & Greenfield, T. K. (2019). Alcohol’s secondhand harms in the United States: New data on prevalence and risk factors. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 80(3), 273-281.
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Harmful drinking can have severe physical and psychological consequences for the person consuming alcohol. However, the negative impact does not just stop at the individual level.

Tobacco Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Risks and Challenges

Citation
Siddiqi, Kamran. "Tobacco use in Sub-Saharan Africa: the risks and challenges." Nicotine & Tobacco Research (2019).
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In recent years, the tobacco pandemic’s magnitude and trajectory has shifted away from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries and so have the tobacco industry’s marketing efforts and tactics.

Research suggests that Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to face the largest growth in tobacco use in the world.