Research

Adolescent Cigarettes and E-cigarettes Use

Citation
Azagba, S., Shan, L., & Latham, K. (2019). Adolescent Dual Use Classification and Its Association With Nicotine Dependence and Quit Intentions. Journal of Adolescent Health.
Publication Date

E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine flavourings and other chemicals. They have rapidly become the most favoured form of tobacco among youth in the United States. 

There is continued discussion about the safety of e-cigarettes and the link with the initiation of cigarette smoking and tobacco dependence.

Alcohol’s Secondhand Harms: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Citation
Nayak, M. B., Patterson, D., Wilsnack, S. C., Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., & Greenfield, T. K. (2019). Alcohol’s secondhand harms in the United States: New data on prevalence and risk factors. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 80(3), 273-281.
Publication Date

Harmful drinking can have severe physical and psychological consequences for the person consuming alcohol. However, the negative impact does not just stop at the individual level.

Tobacco Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Risks and Challenges

Citation
Siddiqi, Kamran. "Tobacco use in Sub-Saharan Africa: the risks and challenges." Nicotine & Tobacco Research (2019).
Publication Date

In recent years, the tobacco pandemic’s magnitude and trajectory has shifted away from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries and so have the tobacco industry’s marketing efforts and tactics.

Research suggests that Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to face the largest growth in tobacco use in the world.

Long-Term Joint Trajectories of Heroin Use and Treatment Utilisation

Citation
Marel, Christina & Mills, Katherine & Slade, Timothy & Darke, Shane & Ross, Joanne & Teesson, Maree. (2019). Modelling Long-Term Joint Trajectories of Heroin Use and Treatment Utilisation: Findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study. EClinicalMedicine. 10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.07.013.
Publication Date

There has been a concerning steady increase in heroin-related deaths in countries around the world. Treatment is rarely simple, and it often requires multiple attempts before a person is able to abstain from using or reduce their use.

Longitudinal studies can help track the diverse range of treatment pathways and levels of success over time.

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Alcohol Use

Citation
Goldschmidt, Lidush, Gale A. Richardson, Natacha M. De Genna, Marie D. Cornelius, and Nancy L. Day. "Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring alcohol use and misuse at 22 years of age: A prospective longitudinal study." Neurotoxicology and teratology 71 (2019): 1-5.

Despite increasing awareness of the negative consequences of alcohol, rates of consumption among young adults remain high.

Longitudinal studies provide insight into the risk and protective factors in a young persons life that might increase the chance that they start drinking, and whether or not they will misuse alcohol.   One such factor is whether or not the young person was exposed to alcohol prenatally.

Tobacco Use Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Young Adults

Citation
Delahanty, Janine, Ollie Ganz, Leah Hoffman, Jamie Guillory, Erik Crankshaw, and Matthew Farrelly. "Tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young adults varies by sexual and gender identity." Drug and alcohol dependence (2019).
Publication Date

It is recognised that smoking and use of tobacco products among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) young adults is higher compared to their heterosexual and cisgender peers.

Although it is believed that within the LGBTQ population, patterns of tobacco use vary based on gender, age and sexual identity, there is a lack of research on specific differences.

Drinking in Pregnancy: Lasting Effects of Low-level Alcohol Use?

Citation
Tobacco and Alcohol Research Group (TARG)
Publication Date

It is generally known and accepted that heavy drinking during pregnancy can have harmful effects on the development of the unborn child. What is less well understood, and is causing uncertainty amongst the public, is the impact of low-level alcohol use during pregnancy.

Changing Perceptions: How Harmful Is Drinking in Later Life?

Citation
Soler-Vila, Hosanna, Rosario Ortolá, Esther García-Esquinas, Luz Mª León-Muñoz, and Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo. "Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Associated Variables among Older Adults in Spain: A population-based cohort study." Scientific reports 9, no. 1 (2019): 10401.
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Given the current growth of ageing populations, alcohol consumption among the elderly has received increased attention.

What is deemed to be a ‘safe’ level of consumption has also been thrown into question, in the light of new evidence of a link between alcohol and illness in later life.

Wine Glass Size and Wine Sales

Citation
Clarke, Natasha, Rachel Pechey, Mark Pilling, Gareth J. Hollands, Eleni Mantzari, and Theresa M. Marteau. "Wine glass size and wine sales: four replication studies in one restaurant and two bars." BMC research notes 12, no. 1 (2019): 426.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a continuous global public health concern.

It is believed that glass size can influence pouring behaviour, with larger glasses resulting in more alcohol being poured into them, and also by influencing perceptions of volume, with the same volume of alcohol being perceived as less when poured into larger compared with smaller glasses.

Awareness of Information on Alcohol Packaging

Citation
Critchlow, Nathan, Daniel Jones, Crawford Moodie, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Niamh Fitzgerald, Lucie Hooper, Christopher Thomas, and Jyotsna Vohra. "Awareness of product-related information, health messages and warnings on alcohol packaging among adolescents: a cross-sectional survey in the United Kingdom." Journal of Public Health (2019).
Publication Date

Although alcohol consumption among young people in the UK has been declining there remains a concerning level of binge drinking amongst 16–24-year-olds.

One intervention, that is cost-effective and has a wide reach, is the inclusion of health messaging and product-related information on alcohol packaging. It is important therefore to understand how much information is being processed and recalled by young people.

The Link between Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in Frequent Users of Psychedelics and Dissociatives

Citation
Sascha B. Thal, Judith K. Daniels & Henrik Jungaberle (2019) The link between childhood trauma and dissociation in frequent users of classic psychedelics and dissociatives, Journal of Substance Use, 24:5, 524-531, DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2019.1614234

Research suggests clear associations between the severity of childhood trauma, levels of substance use and dissociation - the detachment or disruption to normal consciousness. Despite the apparent link, it remains unclear whether the level of substance use can, in some part, explain the relationship between trauma severity and the extent of dissociation.

Psychostimulant Use and the Brain

Citation
Lappin, Julia M., and Grant E. Sara. "Psychostimulant use and the brain." Addiction (2019).
Publication Date

Over the past decade there has been an increase in the manufacture and use of psychostimulants in countries around the world. Around two-thirds of illicit psychostimulant users are male with average age of use for methamphetamine and cocaine being in the mid-30s, and for MDMA in the mid-20s.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Initiating Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents Living in Urban and Rural Ethiopia

Citation
Getachew, S., S. Lewis, J. Britton, W. Deressa, and A. W. Fogarty. "Prevalence and risk factors for initiating tobacco and alcohol consumption in adolescents living in urban and rural Ethiopia." Public Health 174 (2019): 118-126.
Publication Date

Both alcohol and tobacco use is an increasing public health concern in low- or middle-income countries. Due to an annual economic growth rate of approximately 10%, Ethiopia is a target for both the alcohol and tobacco industries.

Although data is limited, trends suggest that alcohol consumption is a particular problem among secondary school students.

Implementation of the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) within the Fijian Healthcare System: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

Citation
Charlson et al. Int J Ment Health Syst (2019) 13:43 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0301-z
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

To facilitate decentralisation and scale-up of mental health services, Fiji’s Ministry of Health and Medical Services committed to implementing the World Health Organization’s mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). mhGAP training has been prolific; however, it remains unclear, beyond this, how successfully Fiji’s national mental health program has been implemented.

Genetic Tools Weed out Misconceptions of Strain Reliability in Cannabis Sativa: Implications for a Budding Industry

Citation
Schwabe, A. L., & McGlaughlin, M. E. (2019). Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: Implications for a budding industry. Journal of Cannabis Research, 1(1), 3.
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Unlike other plants, Cannabis sativa is excluded from regulation by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Distinctive Cannabis varieties are ostracized from registration and therefore nearly impossible to verify.

Molecular Neuroscience at its “High”: Bibliometric Analysis of the Most Cited Papers on Endocannabinoid System, Cannabis and Cannabinoids

Citation
Yeung, A. W. K., Tzvetkov, N. T., Arkells, N., Milella, L., Stankiewicz, A. M., Huminiecki, Ł., ... & Atanasov, A. G. (2019). Molecular neuroscience at its “high”: bibliometric analysis of the most cited papers on endocannabinoid system, cannabis and cannabinoids. Journal of Cannabis Research, 1(1), 4.
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Cannabis, cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are heavily investigated topics with many articles published every year. We aimed to identify the 100 most cited manuscripts among the vast literature and analyze their contents.

Cannabis Use Patterns at the Dawn of US Cannabis Reform

Citation
Kumar, N., Puljević, C., Ferris, J., Winstock, A., & Barratt, M. J. (2019). Cannabis use patterns at the dawn of US cannabis reform. Journal of Cannabis Research, 1(1), 5.
Publication Date

Abstract

In the United States (US), three in 10 cannabis users develop cannabis use disorder (CUD). Usage patterns in line with CUD may be associated with socio-economic disadvantage, and other negative effects. Thus, research on CUD is paramount.

High School Student Cannabis Use and Perceptions towards Cannabis in Southcentral Colorado

Citation
Peters, T., & Foust, C. (2019). High school student cannabis use and perceptions towards cannabis in southcentral Colorado–comparing communities that permit recreational dispensaries and communities that do not. Journal of Cannabis Research, 1(1), 2.
Publication Date

Abstract

Currently, with the legalization of cannabis and the opening of recreational dispensaries in states across the country, the question of whether or not proximity to recreational cannabis dispensaries affects high school students in terms of their cannabis use, their perceptions of the accessibility of cannabis and their perceptions on the harmfulness and wrongfulness of using cannabis is particularly relevant and timely.

Prevention and Treatment of Opioid Misuse and Addiction

Citation
JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(2):208-216. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3126
Publication Date

This paper provides many pieces of research in the search for the most effective treatments for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). They touch on the effectiveness of Medication-Assisted Treatment. The authors also describe the most at-risk populations of OUD and the importance of recognizing the comorbidity of other disorders. 

Motor Racing, Tobacco Company Sponsorship, Barcodes and Alibi Marketing

Citation
Grant-Braham B, Britton J Motor racing, tobacco company sponsorship, barcodes and alibi marketing Tobacco Control 2012;21:529-535.
Publication Date

Abstract

Background: Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris.

Medication-Assisted Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder: Review of the Evidence and Future Directions

Citation
Connery, Hilary Smith, Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 23(2):63-75, March/April 2015.
Publication Date

This article is a review and analysis of past research that finds substantial evidence for the positive results of Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in treating Opioid Use Disorder.

 

image <https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment>

Vaping Cannabis among Adolescents: Prevalence and Associations with Tobacco Use from a Cross-Sectional Study in the USA

Citation
Kowitt SD, Osman A, Meernik C, et al Vaping cannabis among adolescents: prevalence and associations with tobacco use from a cross-sectional study in the USA BMJ Open 2019;9:e028535. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028535
Publication Date

Abstract

Objective: Previous research suggests that some adolescents are using e-cigarette devices to vaporise (‘vaping’) cannabis in the form of hash oil, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax or oil, or dried cannabis buds or leaves. However, it is unclear how adolescents who vape cannabis use other tobacco products.

Prenatal Alcohol Screening During Pregnancy by Midwives and Nurses

Citation
Chiodo, L. M., Cosmian, C. , Pereira, K. , Kent, N. , Sokol, R. J. and Hannigan, J. H. (2019), Prenatal Alcohol Screening During Pregnancy by Midwives and Nurses. Alcohol Clin Exp Re. doi:10.1111/acer.14114
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Alcohol use during pregnancy can have a variety of harmful consequences on the fetus. Lifelong effects include growth restriction, characteristic facial anomalies, and neurobehavioral dysfunction. This range of effects is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). There is no amount, pattern, or timing of alcohol use during pregnancy proven safe for a developing embryo or fetus.

Association between Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Overdose Mortality Has Reversed over Time

Citation
www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1903434116
Publication Date

Medical cannabis has been touted as a solution to the US opioid overdose crisis since Bachhuber et al. [M. A. Bachhuber, B. Saloner, C. O. Cunningham, C. L. Barry, JAMA Intern. Med. 174, 1668–1673] found that from 1999 to 2010 states with medical cannabis laws experienced slower increases in opioid analgesic overdose mortality.

Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer Risk

Citation
Chambers, Sophia E., Ellen R. Copson, Peter F. Dutey‐Magni, Caspian Priest, Annie S. Anderson, and Julia MA Sinclair. "Alcohol use and breast cancer risk: A qualitative study of women’s perspectives to inform the development of a preventative intervention in breast clinics." European journal of cancer care (2019): e13075.
Publication Date

There is strong evidence to suggest there is a link between alcohol consumption and breast cancer, with there being a 5%–9% increased risk per 10g ethanol per day. Despite the clear associations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer, public awareness of this issue is low.

Substance Use Prevention for Adolescents: The Icelandic Model

Citation
Sigfúsdóttir, Inga Dóra, Thorolfur Thorlindsson, Álfgeir Logi Kristjánsson, Kathleen M. Roe, and John P. Allegrante. "Substance use prevention for adolescents: the Icelandic model." Health Promotion International 24, no. 1 (2008): 16-25.
Publication Date

Back in the 1990s, results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) highlighted concerning levels of adolescent substance use in Iceland. Since the publication of the ESPAD results, Icelandic authorities have made a considerable effort to reverse these trends, with a fair level of success.

Reducing Barriers to Trauma Inquiry in SUD Treatment

Citation
https://substanceabusepolicy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13011-019-0211-8
Publication Date

Despite the high rate of traumatic events in clients with substance use disorders, trauma exposure often remains undetected in a majority of treatment-seeking clients. Improving health professionals’ knowledge and skills in the inquiry of traumatic events is therefore of utmost importance for appropriately addressing trauma-related treatment needs.

Reducing Barriers to Trauma Inquiry in Substance Use Disorder Treatment – A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Citation
Lotzin et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:23 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0211-8
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Despite the high rate of traumatic events in clients with substance use disorders, trauma exposure often remains undetected in a majority of treatment-seeking clients.