Cochrane Tobacco Addiction: Key Review Summaries
Below are two-page summaries of research carried out by the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation Electronic cigarettes for
The Dalgarno Institute were proud to be part ANACAD commissioned consultancy on the effectiveness of AOD Education in Australian Government Schools. Review attached - The imperative of evidence-based demand reduction, 'all of school and community' education is not only vital, but effective when both Affective and Cognitive Education Domains are creatively and thoroughly used.
‘Backfilled’ as a seminal study for the Alcohol Treatment Matrix, the classic description of the patient who has sustained abstinence after treatment but is still unhappy, unfulfilled and/or nervously hanging on - in other words, not really ‘recovered’.
It is well recognised that substance use during pregnancy can harm the developing foetus, leading to potential cognitive dysfunction and mental and behavioural difficulties in later life.
Longitudinal studies, which track participants over an extended amount of time, allow researchers to examine specific factors that may influence the growth and development of an individual.
With the rise in the number of states that have legalized recreational cannabis, the states considering legalization, and the increased prevalence of cannabis use among pregnant women, it is critical to understand the impacts of cannabis legalization for recreational use on the most vulnerable, our nation’s children.
National surveys of substance use among those living in Afghanistan show multiple substances are easily accessible and commonly used in combination. Substance use in Afghanistan is complex, compounded
This Recovery Research Institute review summarizes a recent meta-analysis of research on brain stimulation as a treatment for substance use disorders. The study finds that stimulation using specific methods on specific brain regions may have a positive effect on craving.
Data on treatment for AUD (Alcohol Use Disorders) in developing countries are scarce. This study explores aspects of early recovery and correlates of alcohol use after residential AUD treatment in Uganda. 78 respondents were followed up using, among others, the ASI-6, HCSL-37A and WHOQOL–BREF. They were interviewed within two weeks after admission in residential treatment and six months later.
University students are considered a risk population with regard to alcohol consumption, either by frequency of consumption or its consequences, which can even considerably affect the academic performance of the student. For this reason, alcohol consumption in this population has been the focus of concerns and searches for effective interventions to reduce consumption, as well as associated problems and consequences.
With many adolescents experimenting with cannabis and the variety of cannabis products available with each product varying in their THC level, mechanism of use, and intoxicating effects experienced, this study aimed to determine whether certain products are associated with persistent or frequent use among adolescents who experiment with cannabis.
To examine the efficacy of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in improving children’s reading attainment, and the extent to which this varies as a function of cumulative intervention intensity (dosage) and timing of outcome measurement. A 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven primary schools from three regions in England were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups.
This article discusses how decision-makers can be supported to strengthen a culture of prevention. This article presents an example of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s (UNODC) work to engage with decision-makers to create readiness, demand, and capacity for evidence-based prevention programming among them, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
Introduction: Most people who stop smoking gain weight. Dietary modification may seem an obvious solution, but food restriction may increase cigarette craving and smoking relapse.
Trial design: An unblinded parallel randomised controlled trial.
Introduction: Substance use is a problem that requires prevention strategies since childhood. It has been noticed that certain personality traits can play an important role in substance use in adolescence and early adulthood. It is essential to study the factors associated with substance use in order to develop and implement preventive interventions.
Question: What are the associations of educational attainment with exposure to tobacco advertisements among racial/ethnic groups of young adults?
This study sought to assess the effectiveness of religious cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) in Indonesia, a country with a high public health burden from tobacco use. The study tested different religious and nonreligious messages related to suicide, secondhand smoke (SHS) and gangrene. Participants were smokers and non-smokers from Surabaya, Indonesia (n = 817).
This is a completely open access whole journal supplemental edition of the American Journal of Public Health on the health effects of incarceration.
This mouse study describes the structural differences in brains of mice who are dependent on alcohol compared to those who are not. Rather than looking at function of specific sections of the brain, the study looked at the overall structure of the brain to understand differences in a new way.
The article is open access - full article available via the link
Open Access Abstract:
Researchers have continuously debated the link between anxiety and alcohol use. However, despite the previous examination of the direction and strength of the association, the form of the relationship remains unclear.
Alcohol use continues to be one of the leading risk factors for the global burden of disease. This is despite growing awareness of the harm alcohol has the potential to cause and many worldwide initiatives and campaigns to tackle the issue.
Even though the global trend in alcohol use shows an overall increase, trends have varied in different parts of the world.
Smoking in England has decreased over the last decade. It is vital to monitor the trends and examine the factors that may be influencing the downward curve, so as to maintain the pattern and make predictions about future smoking rates.
A recent study, published in Addiction, has examined:
With cannabis the most commonly used drug globally, the perception of the risk associated with cannabis use declining among young adults, and the adverse health conditions associated with cannabis use, understanding whether perceptual patterns exist among young adults, whether perception influences their consumption of cannabis, and the relationship between their perception and sources of drug information, are important public health concerns.
Open Access article
Alcohol use has increased globally, with varying trends in different parts of the world. This study investigates gender, age, and geographical differences in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease from 2000 to 2016.
"Even light drinking could contribute to atrial fibrillation, a fluttery heartbeat with potentially grave consequences.
Swearing off alcohol in the new year can be a way to recover from holiday indulgence. But for people who suffer from a common and risky type of heart problem, giving up booze might be a life-saving resolution.
Background: Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator and mechanism of behaviour change (MOBC) that has not been examined in adolescents with cannabis use.
To estimate trends in the prevalence of cannabis use and risk perceptions of cannabis use from 2005 to 2017 among United States people with and without depression.
Objective: Human resources are crucial for addiction treatment and prevention services, as well as for science and research. The aim of this historical case study is to explain and demonstrate the role of specialized university academic degree study programmes in addictions in the context of a national institutional infrastructure.
Comprehensive bachelor's, master's, and doctorate-level curricula of Addiction Studies (Addictology) were developed and implemented at Charles University (First Faculty of Medicine) between 2003 and 2012. This Prague model combines three evidence-based approaches to addressing substance use - prevention, treatment, and public health - into a balanced professionalised discipline.
The integration of opioid use disorder (OUD) care and competencies in graduate medical education training is needed. Previous research shows improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and practices after exposure to OUD care. Few studies report outcomes for patients with OUD in resident physician continuity practices.
There is increasing emphasis on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use in the general hospital, as highlighted by new Joint Commission recommendations on SBIRT. However, the evidence supporting this approach is not as robust relative to primary care settings.