Research

A Review of Alcohol and Drug Education and Early Intervention Programs in Australian Government Schools

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The Dalgarno Institute were proud to be part ANACAD commissioned consultancy on the effectiveness of AOD Education in Australian Government Schools. Review attached - The imperative of evidence-based demand reduction, 'all of school and community' education is not only vital, but effective when both Affective and Cognitive Education Domains are creatively and thoroughly used.
Dalgarno Institute

An Investigation into the Lasting Impact of Exposure to Alcohol and Drugs During Foetal Life

Citation
Koponen, A. M., Nissinen, N. M., Gissler, M., Sarkola, T., Autti-Rämö, I., & Kahila, H. (2019). Cohort profile: ADEF Helsinki–a longitudinal register-based study on exposure to alcohol and drugs during foetal life. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1455072519885719.

It is well recognised that substance use during pregnancy can harm the developing foetus, leading to potential cognitive dysfunction and mental and behavioural difficulties in later life.

Longitudinal studies, which track participants over an extended amount of time, allow researchers to examine specific factors that may influence the growth and development of an individual. 

Recreational Cannabis Legalization and Maternal Cannabis Use

Citation
Skelton, K. R., Hecht, A. A., & Benjamin-Neelon, S. E. (2020). Recreational Cannabis legalization in the US and maternal use during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030909
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With the rise in the number of states that have legalized recreational cannabis, the states considering legalization, and the increased prevalence of cannabis use among pregnant women, it is critical to understand the impacts of cannabis legalization for recreational use on the most vulnerable, our nation’s children.

Substance Use among Women and Children in Afghanistan: The Complexities of an Important Public Health Issue

Citation
Momand AS, Jones HE (2020) Substance Use among Women and Children in Afghanistan: The Complexities of an Important Public Health Issue. J Addict Addictv Disord 7: 33.
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National surveys of substance use among those living in Afghanistan show multiple substances are easily accessible and commonly used in combination. Substance use in Afghanistan is complex, compounded

An Up-To-Date Review of Brain Stimulation Techniques for Addiction Treatment

Citation
Zhang, J. J., Fong, K. N., Ouyang, R. G., Siu, A. M., & Kranz, G. S. (2019). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on craving and substance consumption in patients with substance dependence: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 114(12), 2137-2149. doi: 10.1111/add.14753
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This Recovery Research Institute review summarizes a recent meta-analysis of research on brain stimulation as a treatment for substance use disorders. The study finds that stimulation using specific methods on specific brain regions may have a positive effect on craving.

Predictors of Early Recovery after Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders in Uganda

Citation
David Kalema, Lore Van Damme, Sofie Vindevogel, Ilse Derluyn, Florien Meulewaeter & Wouter Vanderplasschen (2019): Predictors of Early Recovery after Treatment for Alcohol use Disorders in Uganda, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/07347324.2019.1692639
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Data on treatment for AUD (Alcohol Use Disorders) in developing countries are scarce. This study explores aspects of early recovery and correlates of alcohol use after residential AUD treatment in Uganda. 78 respondents were followed up using, among others, the ASI-6, HCSL-37A and WHOQOL–BREF. They were interviewed within two weeks after admission in residential treatment and six months later.

Study indicates interventions to reduce alcohol consumption by Brazilian university students

Citation
Silva, E. C. & Tucci, A. M. (2015). Intervenção Breve para Redução do Consumo de Álcool e suas Consequências em Estudantes Universitários Brasileiros
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University students are considered a risk population with regard to alcohol consumption, either by frequency of consumption or its consequences, which can even considerably affect the academic performance of the student. For this reason, alcohol consumption in this population has been the focus of concerns and searches for effective interventions to reduce consumption, as well as associated problems and consequences.

Risk of Persistence and Progression of Use of Five Cannabis Products after Experimentation among Adolescents

Citation
Barrington-Trimis, J. L., Cho, J., Ewusi-Boisvert, E., Hasin, D., Unger, J. B., Miech, R. A., & Leventhal, A. M. (2020). Risk of persistence and progression of use of 5 cannabis products after experimentation among adolescents. Jama Network Open, 3(1). doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19792.
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With many adolescents experimenting with cannabis and the variety of cannabis products available with each product varying in their THC level, mechanism of use, and intoxicating effects experienced, this study aimed to determine whether certain products are associated with persistent or frequent use among adolescents who experiment with cannabis.

Game On—Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation Reveals Sleeper Effects on Academic Attainment in a Randomized Trial of the Good Behavior Game

Citation
Ashworth, E., Panayiotou, M., Humphrey, N. et al. Game On—Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation Reveals Sleeper Effects on Academic Attainment in a Randomized Trial of the Good Behavior Game. Prev Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01074-6
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Abstract

To examine the efficacy of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in improving children’s reading attainment, and the extent to which this varies as a function of cumulative intervention intensity (dosage) and timing of outcome measurement. A 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven primary schools from three regions in England were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Efforts to Strengthen a Culture of Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Citation
Hanna, H., Wadih, M. & Giovanna, C. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Efforts to Strengthen a Culture of Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Prev Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01088-5
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Abstract

This article discusses how decision-makers can be supported to strengthen a culture of prevention. This article presents an example of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s (UNODC) work to engage with decision-makers to create readiness, demand, and capacity for evidence-based prevention programming among them, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Referral to Slimming World in UK Stop Smoking Services (SWISSS) versus Stop Smoking Support Alone on Body Weight in Quitters: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial

Citation
Lycett D, Aveyard P, Farmer A, et al Referral to Slimming World in UK Stop Smoking Services (SWISSS) versus stop smoking support alone on body weight in quitters: results of a randomised controlled trial BMJ Open 2020;10:e032271. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032271
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Abstract

Introduction: Most people who stop smoking gain weight. Dietary modification may seem an obvious solution, but food restriction may increase cigarette craving and smoking relapse.

Trial design: An unblinded parallel randomised controlled trial.

Association between Substance Use and Personality among Mexico City’s School Children Aged 10-13

Citation
Maldonado, M. T. S., Natera-Rey, G., & Lozada, C. E. C. (2019). Association between substance use and personality among school children aged 10-13. Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, 5(2), 1-7.

Abstract

Introduction: Substance use is a problem that requires prevention strategies since childhood. It has been noticed that certain personality traits can play an important role in substance use in adolescence and early adulthood. It is essential to study the factors associated with substance use in order to develop and implement preventive interventions.

Association of Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity With Exposure to Tobacco Advertisement Among US Young Adults

Citation
Assari S. Association of Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity With Exposure to Tobacco Advertisement Among US Young Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(1):e1919393. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19393
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Key Points

Question: What are the associations of educational attainment with exposure to tobacco advertisements among racial/ethnic groups of young adults?

The Effectiveness of Cigarette Pack Health Warning Labels with Religious Messages in an Urban Setting in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Citation
Kaplan, B., Hardesty, J. J., Martini, S., Megatsari, H., Kennedy, R. D., & Cohen, J. E. (2019). The Effectiveness of Cigarette Pack Health Warning Labels with Religious Messages in an Urban Setting in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(21), 4287.
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Abstract

This study sought to assess the effectiveness of religious cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) in Indonesia, a country with a high public health burden from tobacco use. The study tested different religious and nonreligious messages related to suicide, secondhand smoke (SHS) and gangrene. Participants were smokers and non-smokers from Surabaya, Indonesia (n = 817).

Brain-Wide Functional Architecture Remodeling by Alcohol Dependence and Abstinence

Citation
Kimbrough, A., Lurie, D. J., Collazo, A., Kreifeldt, M., Sidhu, H., Macedo, G. C., D’Esposito, M., Contet, C., & George, O. (2020). Brain-wide functional architecture remodeling by alcohol dependence and abstinence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909915117
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This mouse study describes the structural differences in brains of mice who are dependent on alcohol compared to those who are not. Rather than looking at function of specific sections of the brain, the study looked at the overall structure of the brain to understand differences in a new way.

The article is open access - full article available via the link

Co-Occurring Alcohol Use Disorder and Anxiety Bridging Psychiatric, Psychological, and Neurobiological Perspectives

Citation
Anker, J. J., & Kushner, M. G. (2019). Co-occurring alcohol use disorder and anxiety: bridging psychiatric, psychological, and neurobiological perspectives. Alcohol research: current reviews, 40(1).
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Open Access Abstract:

The Problematic Relationship Between Youth Anxiety and Later Alcohol Use

Citation
Dyer, M. L., Easey, K. E., Heron, J., Hickman, M., & Munafò, M. R. (2019). Associations of child and adolescent anxiety with later alcohol use and disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (PDF). Addiction, 114(6), 968-982. doi: 10.1111/add.14575

Researchers have continuously debated the link between anxiety and alcohol use. However, despite the previous examination of the direction and strength of the association, the form of the relationship remains unclear.

National, Regional, and Global Burdens of Disease Linked to Alcohol Use

Citation
Shield, K., Manthey, J., Rylett, M., Probst, C., Wettlaufer, A., Parry, C. D., & Rehm, J. (2020). National, regional, and global burdens of disease from 2000 to 2016 attributable to alcohol use: a comparative risk assessment study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(1), e51-e61.

Alcohol use continues to be one of the leading risk factors for the global burden of disease. This is despite growing awareness of the harm alcohol has the potential to cause and many worldwide initiatives and campaigns to tackle the issue.

Even though the global trend in alcohol use shows an overall increase, trends have varied in different parts of the world.

Changes in Smoker Characteristics in England

Citation
Garnett, C., Tombor, I., Beard, E., Jackson, S., West, R., & Brown, J. (2019). Changes in smoker characteristics in England between 2008 and 2017. Addiction.

Smoking in England has decreased over the last decade. It is vital to monitor the trends and examine the factors that may be influencing the downward curve, so as to maintain the pattern and make predictions about future smoking rates.

A recent study, published in Addiction, has examined:

Young Adults Perception of Risk in Relation to Cannabis Consumption

Citation
Herruzo, C., Pino, M. J., Lucena, V., & Herruzo, J. (2019). Perceptual styles and cannabis consumption prediction in young people. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17010288.
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With cannabis the most commonly used drug globally, the perception of the risk associated with cannabis use declining among young adults, and the adverse health conditions associated with cannabis use, understanding whether perceptual patterns exist among young adults, whether perception influences their consumption of cannabis, and the relationship between their perception and sources of drug information, are important public health concerns.

National, Regional, and Global Burdens of Disease from 2000 to 2016 Attributable to Alcohol Use: A Comparative Risk Assessment Study

Citation
Shield, K., Manthey, J., Rylett, M., Probst, C., Wettlaufer, A., Parry, C. D., & Rehm, J. (2020). National, regional, and global burdens of disease from 2000 to 2016 attributable to alcohol use: a comparative risk assessment study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(1), e51-e61.
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Open Access article

Abstract:

Background

Alcohol use has increased globally, with varying trends in different parts of the world. This study investigates gender, age, and geographical differences in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease from 2000 to 2016.

Skipping Alcohol is Good for a Heart that Skips Beats

Citation
Voskoboinik, A., Kalman, J. M., De Silva, A., Nicholls, T., Costello, B., Nanayakkara, S., ... & Wong, G. (2020). Alcohol Abstinence in Drinkers with Atrial Fibrillation. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(1), 20-28.
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"Even light drinking could contribute to atrial fibrillation, a fluttery heartbeat with potentially grave consequences.

Swearing off alcohol in the new year can be a way to recover from holiday indulgence. But for people who suffer from a common and risky type of heart problem, giving up booze might be a life-saving resolution.

Goal Commitment Predicts Cannabis Use for Adolescents in Treatment

Citation
Yifrah Kaminer, Christine M. Ohannessian & Rebecca H. Burke (2019) Goal commitment predicts cannabis use for adolescents in treatment, Substance Abuse, 40:4, 496-500, DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2019.1573207
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Background: Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator and mechanism of behaviour change (MOBC) that has not been examined in adolescents with cannabis use.

Rapid Increase in the Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among People with Depression in the United States, 2005–17: The Role of Differentially Changing Risk Perceptions

Citation
Pacek, L. R., Weinberger, A. H., Zhu, J., & Goodwin, R. D. (2019). Rapid increase in the prevalence of cannabis use among persons with depression in the US, 2005‐2017: the role of differentially changing risk perceptions. Addiction.
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Abstract

Aims

To estimate trends in the prevalence of cannabis use and risk perceptions of cannabis use from 2005 to 2017 among United States people with and without depression.

National Addiction-Specific Institutional Infrastructure – Fundamental Prerequisite for Successful Implementation of Specialized Academic Degree Study Programmes: A Case Study in Historical Perspective

Citation
Miovský, M., Vondrová, A., Peters, R., Kathungu, B., & Lososová, A. (2019). National Addiction-specific Institutional Infrastructure – fundamental prerequisite for successful implementation of specialized academic degree study programmes: a case study in historical perspective. Cent Eur J Public Health, 27(Supplement), S83-91. doi: 10.21101/cejph.a5980.
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Objective: Human resources are crucial for addiction treatment and prevention services, as well as for science and research. The aim of this historical case study is to explain and demonstrate the role of specialized university academic degree study programmes in addictions in the context of a national institutional infrastructure.

Incorporation of Universal Prevention Curriculum into Established Academic Degree Study Programme: Qualitative Process Evaluation

Citation
Miovský, M., Vondrová, A., Gabrhelík, R., Sloboda, Z., Libra, J., & Lososová, A. (2019). Incorporation of Universal Prevention Curriculum into established academic degree study programme: qualitative process evaluation. Cent Eur J Public Health, 27(Supplement), 74-82. doi: 10.21101/cejph.a5952.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Comprehensive bachelor's, master's, and doctorate-level curricula of Addiction Studies (Addictology) were developed and implemented at Charles University (First Faculty of Medicine) between 2003 and 2012. This Prague model combines three evidence-based approaches to addressing substance use - prevention, treatment, and public health - into a balanced professionalised discipline.

Outcomes of a Novel Office-Based Opioid Treatment Program in an Internal Medicine Resident Continuity Practice

Citation
Pytell, J.D., Buresh, M.E. & Graddy, R. Outcomes of a novel office-based opioid treatment program in an internal medicine resident continuity practice. Addict Sci Clin Pract 14, 46 (2019) doi:10.1186/s13722-019-0175-z
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Abstract

Background

The integration of opioid use disorder (OUD) care and competencies in graduate medical education training is needed. Previous research shows improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and practices after exposure to OUD care. Few studies report outcomes for patients with OUD in resident physician continuity practices.

Care for Hospitalized Patients with Unhealthy Alcohol Use: A Narrative Review

Citation
Makdissi, R., & Stewart, S. H. (2013). Care for hospitalized patients with unhealthy alcohol use: a narrative review. Addiction science & clinical practice, 8(1), 11. doi:10.1186/1940-0640-8-11
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Abstract

There is increasing emphasis on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use in the general hospital, as highlighted by new Joint Commission recommendations on SBIRT. However, the evidence supporting this approach is not as robust relative to primary care settings.