Research

Evaluation of Amphetamine-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Clinical Outcomes and Costs in the United States

Citation
Winkelman TNA, Admon LK, Jennings L, Shippee ND, Richardson CR, Bart G. Evaluation of Amphetamine-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Clinical Outcomes and Costs in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(6):e183758. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3758
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Key Points

Question: What are the current trends in frequency and costs of amphetamine-related hospitalizations in the United States?

Effect of a Primary Care–Based Psychological Intervention on Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Zimbabwe

Citation
Chibanda D, Weiss HA, Verhey R, et al. Effect of a Primary Care–Based Psychological Intervention on Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in ZimbabweA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;316(24):2618–2626. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19102
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Key Points

Question: Does a lay health worker–delivered psychological intervention improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in Zimbabwe?

Qualitative Cross-Country Comparison of Whether, When and How People Diagnosed with Lung Cancer Talk about Cigarette Smoking in Narrative Interviews

Citation
Hajdarevic S, Rasmussen BH, Overgaard Hasle TL, et al Qualitative cross-country comparison of whether, when and how people diagnosed with lung cancer talk about cigarette smoking in narrative interviews BMJ Open 2018;8:e023934. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023934
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Abstract

Objectives: To compare and examine whether, when and how patients with lung cancer in three countries, with different survival rates, talk about cigarette smoking and its relationship with help-seeking.

Design: A qualitative cross-country comparison with analysis of narrative interviews.

Stopping Cannabis Use Is Associated with Improved Memory

Citation
Schuster, R. M., Gilman, J., Schoenfeld, D., Evenden, J., Hareli, M., Ulysse, C., ... & Evins, A. E. (2018). One Month of Cannabis Abstinence in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Improved Memory. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79(6), 0-0.
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The controversial subject of cannabis legalisation has led to the increased urgency in understanding the full health and social implications of the drug use. Cannabis use is particularly prevalent amongst adolescence - a period of time where young people are going through significant neural development.

History of Child Sexual Abuse among Women Consuming Illicit Substances in Mexico City

Citation
Mendoza-Meléndez, M. Á., Cepeda, A., Frankeberger, J., López-Macario, M., & Valdez, A. (2018). History of child sexual abuse among women consuming illicit substances in Mexico City. Journal of substance use, 23(5), 520-527.
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Abstract

Introduction:

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a pervasive problem that has been linked to numerous developmental, social, health, and substance use consequences. Nevertheless, the relationship between CSA and the consumption of psychoactive substances has not been adequately studied in Mexico.

Integrated Mapping of Local Mental Health Systems in Central Chile

Citation
Salinas-Perez JA, Salvador-Carulla L, Saldivia S, Grandon P, Minoletti A, Romero Lopez-Alberca C. Integrated mapping of local mental health systems in Central Chile. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e144. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.144
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[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the availability of local mental health (MH) services in small MH catchment areas in Central Chile, using a bottom-up approach. Methods.

The Importance of Social Interaction in Preventing Addictive Behaviour

Citation
Venniro, M., Zhang, M., Caprioli, D., Hoots, J. K., Golden, S. A., Heins, C., ... & Shaham, Y. (2018). Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models. Nature neuroscience, 1.
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Negative social interactions and isolation have been linked with heightened risk of drug self-administration and relapse, whereas positive social interactions can act as a protective factor against substance abuse.

The Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Alcohol and Drug Use in 195 Countries and Territories, 1990–2016

Citation
Degenhardt, Louisa & Charlson, Fiona & Ferrari, Alize & Santomauro, Damian & Erskine, Holly & Mantilla-Herrara, Ana & Whiteford, Harvey & Leung, Janni & Naghavi, Mohsen & Griswold, Max & Rehm, Jürgen & Hall, Wayne & Sartorius, Benn & Scott, James & Emil Vollset, Stein & Knudsen, Ann & Maria Haro, Josep & Patton, George & Kopec, Jacek & Vos, Theo. (2018). The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and drug use in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Psychiatry. 10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30337-7.
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Summary

Background

Alcohol and drug use can have negative consequences on the health, economy, productivity, and social aspects of communities.

Neighbourhood Tobacco Supply and Individual Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

Citation
Clemens T, Dibben C, Pearce J, et al. Neighbourhood tobacco supply and individual maternal smoking during pregnancy: a fixed-effects longitudinal analysis using routine data. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 02 November 2018. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054422
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Abstract

Background: Tobacco policy is increasingly focusing on the ‘tobacco endgame’ which commits to eradicating tobacco use (prevalence below 5%) within the next two decades. Strategies for achieving the endgame are likely to include addressing the supply of tobacco products, yet current evidence to support this approach is primarily cross-sectional.

Potential benefit of N-acetylcysteine for the management of cocaine base paste addiction

Citation
Betancur M., Carmen, & Vicente P., Benjamín. (2018). Potencial beneficio de la N-acetilcisteína para el manejo de la adicción a pasta base de cocaína. Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría, 56(3), 186-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0717-92272018000300186
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Abstract

In Chile, the consumption of Cocaine Base Paste (CBP), a highly toxic and addictive substance, has become a serious medical and social problem in the poorest areas of the country. This substance is smoked and quickly provokes in the user the compulsive desire to continue using it, as well as to great difficulty in stopping consumption, mainlydue to the withdrawal symptoms that it generates in the user.

A Qualitative Exploration of School-Based Staff’s Experiences of Delivering an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in the High School Setting

Citation
G J McGeechan, E L Giles, S Scott, R McGovern, S Boniface, A Ramsay, H Sumnall, D Newbury-Birch, E Kaner, SIPS JR-HIGH Study Team; A qualitative exploration of school-based staff’s experiences of delivering an alcohol screening and brief intervention in the high school setting: findings from the SIPS JR-HIGH trial, Journal of Public Health, , fdy184, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy184
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Abstract

Background

Whilst underage drinking in the UK has been declining in recent years, prevalence is still higher than in most other Western European countries. Therefore, it is important to deliver effective interventions to reduce risk of harm.

Methods

Research on the Perception of Brazilian Parliamentarians on Drug Policy

Citation
Relatório Executivo da Pesquisa sobre percepção dos parlamentares brasileiros sobre política de drogas, 2016, Brasilia, Brasil
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Seeking to qualify the public debate on drug policy and guide the actions of its members, the Brazilian Drug Policy Platform conducted a survey with the Federal Legislative Branch to map the opinions and perceptions of the congressmen on the current drug policy in the country.

The Key Drivers of Alcohol Supply and Demand

Citation
Jin, Z., Chang, H. H., Ponicki, W. R., Gaidus, A., Waller, L. A., Morrison, C. N., & Gruenewald, P. J. (2018). Longitudinal impacts of two causal drivers of alcohol demand on outlet concentrations within community settings: Population size and income effects. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 27, 21-28.
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Alcohol outlets will open to sell alcohol and meet market demand.  The supply and demand are linked so that greater supply will induce yet greater demand.

Inactivation of HCV and HIV by Microwave: A Novel Approach for Prevention of Virus Transmission among People who Inject Drugs

Citation
Siddharta, A. et al. Inactivation of HCV and HIV by microwave: a novel approach for prevention of virus transmission among people who inject drugs. Sci. Rep. 6, 36619; doi: 10.1038/srep36619 (2016).
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Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmissions among people who inject drugs (PWID) continue to pose a challenging global health problem. Here, we aimed to analyse a universally applicable inactivation procedure, namely microwave irradiation, as a safe and effective method to reduce the risk of viral transmission.

How Alcohol Can Change How Memories Are Formed

Citation
Petruccelli, E., Feyder, M., Ledru, N., Jaques, Y., Anderson, E., & Kaun, K. R. (2018). Alcohol Activates Scabrous-Notch to Influence Associated Memories. Neuron.
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Consuming alcohol often comes with negative side effects, such as nausea or headaches, however we have a tendency to remember the positive experience of drinking rather than the negative consequences.

The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Associates with NMDA Receptors to Produce Glutamatergic Hypofunction: Implications in Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Citation
Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Rodríguez-Muñoz, M., & Garzón, J. (2014). The cannabinoid receptor 1 associates with NMDA receptors to produce glutamatergic hypofunction: implications in psychosis and schizophrenia. Frontiers in pharmacology, 4, 169. doi:10.3389/fphar.2013.00169
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The endocannabinoid system is widespread throughout the central nervous system and its type 1 receptor (CB1) plays a crucial role in preventing the neurotoxicity caused by activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Indeed, it is the activity of NMDARs themselves that provides the demands on the endogenous cannabinoids in order to control their calcium currents.

Sex Differences in Cannabis Use

Citation
Struik, D., Sanna, F., & Fattore, L. (2018). The modulating role of sex and anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones in cannabinoid sensitivity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 249.
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Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and, with the rise of decriminalisation and legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use, it is expected this will increase even further.

Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Treatment for Opioid Use Disorders

Citation
Samples, H., Williams, A. R., Olfson, M., & Crystal, S. (2018). Risk factors for discontinuation of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorders in a multi-state sample of Medicaid enrollees. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 95, 9-17.
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Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), and the associated risk of overdose and death, is becoming one of the most prevalent threats to health and social wellbeing in the United States.

The Mechanism Behind Alcohol Addiction

Citation
You, C., Savarese, A., Vandegrift, B. J., He, D., Pandey, S. C., Lasek, A. W., & Brodie, M. S. (2018). Ethanol acts on KCNK13 potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area to increase firing rate and modulate binge–like drinking. Neuropharmacology.
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Neurons are highly specialised cells that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurons are highly specialised cells that receive, processes, and transmit information, within the br

Gene Therapy for Cocaine Addiction

Citation
Li, Y., Kong, Q., Yue, J., Gou, X., Xu, M., & Wu, X. (2018). Genome-edited skin epidermal stem cells protect mice from cocaine-seeking behaviour and cocaine overdose. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1.
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Cocaine addiction is linked with uncontrollable drug seeking. Cues within the environment act as a constant reminder of the experience and can lead to relapse.

Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development

Citation
Morin, J., Afzali, M., Bourque, J., Stewart, S., Séguin, J., O'Leary-Barrett, M., & Conrod, P. (2018). A Population-Based Analysis of the Relationship Between Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Appiajp201818020202.
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Both alcohol and cannabis misuse is linked with impaired mental functioning. Understanding the impact of substance use is particularly important when studying the developing brain.

E-cigarettes: An Unintended Illicit Drug Delivery System

Citation
Breitbarth, A. K., Morgan, J., & Jones, A. L. (2018). E-cigarettes-An unintended illicit drug delivery system. Drug and alcohol dependence.
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Abstract

Since the introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in 2003, the technology has advanced allowing for greater user modifications, with users now able to control voltage, battery power, and constituents of the e-cigarette liquid.

Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas

Citation
Hernández, J. L. A., & Huesca, R. S. (2008). Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas.
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Abstract

Con el objetivo de conocer la experiencia migratoria a Estados Unidos de mujeres mexicanas, de identificar si cuentan con redes sociales cercanas de usuarias de drogas, así como valorar la presencia de consumo de dichas sustancias y si esto tiene alguna relación con la experiencia migratoria, se diseño una investigación de tipo exploratorio.