Cochrane Tobacco Addiction: Key Review Summaries
Below are two-page summaries of research carried out by the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation Electronic cigarettes for
Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking behaviour on campus and to identify the key factors that influence adherence to a campus smoke-free policy.
Researchers attempted to assess the global harms associated with marijuana use and potentially define risky marijuana use in a systematic review of systematic reviews. Forty-four systematic reviews including over 1053 diverse studies were analyzed, with an average AMSTAR 2 rating of 60.1%, indicating low to moderate quality. Harm was divided into the following three categories: mental health harm, somatic harm, and physical harm.
Importance: Nonmedical prescription opioid use is a pressing public health issue in the United States.
Importance: The World Health Organization estimates that the 1 billion individuals who smoke worldwide contribute to the 880 000 secondhand smoke (SHS)–related deaths among individuals who do not smoke each year.
Importance: The number of children with prenatal opioid exposure to medication for addiction treatment (MAT) with methadone and buprenorphine for maternal opioid use disorder is increasing, but the associations of this exposure with cognitive outcomes are not well understood.
Desirée Molina, A. Villalobos. José Félix Ribas Foundation, Venezuela
Codependency has been described as a significant health risk behavior, particularly for women, because codependent women are often involved in abusive and harmful relationships. Identification of individuals who are codependent is an important step in assisting them to engage in therapy and become a healthy support for drug abusers in treatment.
Introduction. Different studies have reported the relationship of parenting styles with adjustment problems in children. However, it has not been specified which aspects of parenting styles play a central role in the manifestation of such psychological problems.
Drawing on qualitative analysis of selected historical documents, the paper seeks to provide a definition of the general characteristics of the first institutional alcohol treatment facilities in today's Czech Republic and Slovakia, taking into account the historical context of the first half of the 20th century.
Importance: Alcohol screening may be associated with health outcomes that cluster with alcohol use (ie, alcohol-clustering conditions), including depression, anxiety, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drugs.
Substance use is prevalent in South Africa and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes, yet, it is largely unaddressed in HIV care. Implementing an evidence-based, task-shared intervention for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and substance use integrated into HIV care may be a feasible and effective way to improve HIV treatment outcomes and reduce substance use in this population.
The link is to Recovery Research Institute's summary of the findings from this long term longitudinal study of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada. It reports that there are five different trajectories for people who inject drugs. Twenty-four percent of study participants died in the ten year study time frame.
Often it takes a critical moment, such as when someone survives an overdose, to motivate behavioural change.
It is particularly important that at these times people have access to the appropriate treatment.
Introduction: Polysubstance use is a prevalent substance use pattern with adverse effects on psychological distress and diminished treatment outcomes. Although polysubstance use often dominates clinical practice, the trajectories of substance use and psychological distress in the initial phase of treatment have been subject to few empirical investigations.
A standardized measure for 9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products is necessary to advance research both on the adverse effects of cannabis (e.g. risks for brain development, mental illness and addiction) and on the drug's potential medical uses.
Authors: Desiree MolinaMSc,Greysi Rivero, Sandra Colina
Molina, Desirée, José Felix Ribas Foundation, Venezuela; Lopez, Susana, Instituto Nacional del Menor, Venezuela
Maternal smoking of traditional or electronic cigarettes during pregnancy, which constitutes developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), heightens the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia in children.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and serious psychiatric condition that typically emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood if left untreated. Prevailing interventions focus on modulating threat and arousal systems but produce only modest rates of remission. This gap in efficacy suggests that most mainstream treatment concepts do not sufficiently target core processes involved in the onset and maintenance of SAD.
Objective: To translate and adapt the human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale into Urdu language, and to determine its psychometric properties.
There is evidence to suggest that adolescents who receive alcohol from their parents are at higher risk of developing harmful drinking patterns later on in life.
Despite the concerning link, the knowledge around this subject remains unclear.
A recent study in Australia has sought to gain a more reliable understanding of the issue through analysing longitudinal data.
Opioid use and Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) continues to be a significant public health concern in the United States.
Several medications for OUD (MOUDs) are now considered by the medical community to be the criterion standard in OUD recovery
While many individuals with opioid use disorder seek treatment at residential facilities to initiate long-term recovery, the availability and use of MOUDs in these facilities are unclear.
Although cannabis use disorder (CUD) is one of the most common substance use disorders (SUDs), the impact of CUD on the brain remains unclear and understudied.
In a recent article, published in Addiction journal, researchers from the University of Amsterdam and Ludwig Maximilan University have brought together the existing research on the relationship between heavy cannabis use, cannabis use disorder (CUD) and the brain.
Subjective networks are one of the central subjects of Community Treatment. This two-part brief presents some data on the structural characteristics of personal networks in order to have some benchmarks for describing the characteristics of subjective networks. The second part presents data from an exploratory study on the structural characteristics of subjective networks.
Nicotine, alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used substances among adolescents. These substances, however, can have serious negative consequences for brain development, making substance use among adolescents a major public health issue.
Psychoactive substance use among children in Afghanistan is an issue of concern. Somewhere around 300,000 children in the country have been exposed to opioids that either parents directly provided to them or by passive exposure. Evidence-based and culturally appropriate drug prevention
In an attempt to prevent harmful tobacco use, countries have introduced policies such as the minimum number of cigarettes. This increases the cost of buying a packet of tobacco and it is hoped it will deter young people from buying.
In contrast, however, there is little regulation of the maximum number of cigarettes contained in a pack.
Globally, the number of young people using e-cigarettes is rising. There is an ongoing debate as to whether vaping acts as a gateway for cigarette use later in life. The long term consequences remain unclear, and some argue we are seeing a new generation addicted to nicotine in a different form.
A recent study conducted in New Zealand has examined the latest trends in adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use from 2014 to 2019.