Research

Overview of University-based Academic Programmes in Addiction Studies in Africa

Citation
Amalie Lososová, Kimberly A. Johnson, William Sinkele, Isidore Silas Obot & Michal Miovský (2020) Overview of university-based academic programs in addiction studies in Africa, Journal of Substance Use, DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2020.1779830
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Abstract

Aim: The aim was to map and describe the university-based addiction studies programs in Africa, as part of continuing international research.

Methods: The study was conducted in 2016–2017. The first phase was based on Google and literature search of academic programs through pre-defined keywords. The second phase consisted of an in-depth analysis of characteristics of the identified programs.

Barriers, Facilitators, and Disparities in Retention for Adolescents in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: A Qualitative Study with Treatment Providers

Citation
Acevedo, A., Harvey, N., Kamanu, M. et al. Barriers, facilitators, and disparities in retention for adolescents in treatment for substance use disorders: a qualitative study with treatment providers. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 42 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00284-4
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Abstract

Background

Retention in substance use treatment is one of the strongest predictors of improved outcomes among adolescents, making retention an important goal of treatment. We examined treatment providers’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to treatment retention among adolescents, and their views on contributors to racial/ethnic disparities in retention including ways to address disparities.

The Role of Alcohol use and Drinking Patterns in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mortality

Citation
Probst, C., Kilian, C., Sanchez, S., Lange, S., & Rehm, J. (2020). The role of alcohol use and drinking patterns in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: a systematic review. The Lancet Public Health, 5(6), e324-e332.

Socioeconomic status (SES) can be thought of as a measure of an individual's or family's social position relative to others that measures factors such as education, income, type of occupation and place of residence.

Research indicates that individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to experience alcohol-related harm compared to individuals from higher SES.

Alcohol consumption in quarantine

Citation
Según una encuesta de investigadores e investigadoras del Instituto Gino Germani, el 45 por ciento de las personas toma más alcohol que antes del aislamiento.
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When Argentine families closed to meet the quarantine imposed by the coronavirus, memes emerged as the possibility of spying on what is happening inside. Images such as a row of green beer bottles lining a house and field, and a caption in yellow capital letters that warns: "Two more weeks of quarantine and end the median." Or an image of Morticia Addams, who watches holding a cup of tea in her hands, and asks, "How are you with isolation?

Substance Use and SUDs in LGBTQ* Populations

Citation
NIDA. (2017, September 5). Substance Use and SUDs in LGBTQ* Populations. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/substance-use-suds-in-lgbtq-populations on 2020, June 5
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People who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual,  transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) often face social stigma, discrimination, and other challenges not encountered by people who identify as heterosexual. They also face a greater risk of harassment and violence. As a result of these and other stressors, sexual minorities are at increased risk for various behavioural health issues.

Addiction Psychiatry and COVID-19 – Impact on Patients and Service Provision

Citation
Columb, D., Hussain, R., & O’Gara, C. (2020). Addiction Psychiatry and COVID-19 – Impact on patients and service provision. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-15. doi:10.1017/ipm.2020.47
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The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly had a major impact on the provision of physical healthcare in Ireland and worldwide. The mental health impact of this pandemic cannot be underestimated, particularly relating to patients suffering with addiction.

One Size Doesn’t Fit All: A Thematic Analysis of Interviews with People who Have Stopped Participating in Narcotics Anonymous in Norway

Citation
Vederhus, J., Høie, M. & Birkeland, B. One size doesn’t fit all: a thematic analysis of interviews with people who have stopped participating in Narcotics Anonymous in Norway. Addict Sci Clin Pract 15, 18 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-020-00191-w
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Background

For persons with substance use disorders (SUDs), 12-step groups (TSGs) are the most available and used peer-based recovery resource, worldwide. However, disengagement is common, and attrition may partly be due to practices and procedures within these groups that are unacceptable to a portion of the population with SUDs.

The CHILD Intervention for Living Drug-Free Comprehensive Assessment of Risk, Resilience, and Experience (CHILD CARRE) Measure: Initial Findings

Citation
Hendrée E. Jones, Abdul Subor Momand, Brian Morales, Thom Browne, Nicolas Poliansky, Diego Ruiz, Mercedez Aranguren, Silvina Sanchez, Maria Valeria Fratto & Kevin E. O’Grady (2020): The CHILD Intervention for Living Drug-Free Comprehensive Assessment of Risk, Resilience, and Experience (CHILD CARRE) Measure: Initial Findings, Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, DOI: 10.1080/1067828X.2020.1766621
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This paper summarizes the development and evaluation of an assessment instrument for children ages 7–12. The CHILD CARRE measure is a semi-structured interview with 7 domains. Children from the USA and Argentina (N¼134) completed baseline and follow-up assessments. Substance use occurred at an average age of 8.

Parliamentary Inquiry into Communication Campaigns Targeting Drug & Substance Abuse

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Submission to Parliamentary Inquiry:

Illicit drug demand is at a critical juncture particularly at a time where the Australian criminal drug manufacturing and distribution networks are well established, sophisticated and tremendously successful operations embedded within interrelated global systems.

Professional knowledge, skills and attitudes for brief intervention in addictions

Citation
Chainé, S. M., Felix-Romero, V., Palafox, G. P., & Martínez, J. L. V. (2019). Conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes profesionales para la intervención breve en adicciones. Revista inteRnacional de investigación en adicciones, 5(2), 8-20.

Summary

Introduction: Continuous training and certification of primary health care professionals support the implementation of brief interventions to address drug use.

Objective: to validate the training materials of the "Universal Treatment Curriculum for Health Professionals" by evaluating knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Alcohol Use in Times of the COVID-19 Virus

Citation
Rehm, J., Kilian, C., Ferreira‐Borges, C., Jernigan, D., Monteiro, M., Parry, C.D.H., Sanchez, Z.M. and Manthey, J. (2020), Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy. Drug Alcohol Rev.. doi:10.1111/dar.13074

During this global lockdown, most people have had to make major lifestyle changes in order to adhere to guidelines outlined by their respective governments.

The situation has forced people's behaviour and choices to change, and it is important to monitor these adjustments from a public health perspective.

Inhibition of Cardiac Sodium Currents by Toluene Exposure

Citation
Cruz, S. L., Orta‐Salazar, G., Gauthereau, M. Y., Millan‐Perez Peña, L., & Salinas‐Stefanón, E. M. (2003). Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. British journal of pharmacology, 140(4), 653-660.

Abstract

Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

Prenatal Exposure to Cannabis and Maternal and Child Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Gunn JKL, Rosales CB, Center KE, et al. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2016;6:e009986. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009986

Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Data sources: 7 electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2014. Studies that investigated the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes were included.

Drinking Patterns and the Distribution of Alcohol-Related Harms in Ireland: Evidence for the Prevention Paradox

Citation
O’Dwyer, C., Mongan, D., Millar, S.R. et al. Drinking patterns and the distribution of alcohol-related harms in Ireland: evidence for the prevention paradox. BMC Public Health 19, 1323 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7666-4
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Abstract

Background

According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms.

Cannabinoid Exposure in Rat Adolescence Reprograms the Initial Behavioral, Molecular, and Epigenetic Response to Cocaine

Citation
Scherma, M., Qvist, J. S., Asok, A., Shao-shan, C. H., Masia, P., Deidda, M., ... & Kandel, E. R. (2020). Cannabinoid exposure in rat adolescence reprograms the initial behavioral, molecular, and epigenetic response to cocaine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Significance

The endocannabinoid system has a modulatory role in brain reward and cognitive processes. It has been hypothesized that repeated interference with endocannabinoid signaling (e.g., through abuse of cannabis or synthetic cannabinoids) can remodel the adolescent brain and make it respond differently to more addictive substances, such as cocaine.

Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption

Citation
Easey, K. E., Timpson, N. J., & Munafò, M. R. Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
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Abstract

Background

Previous research has suggested that intrauterine alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in offspring. However, few studies have investigated its association with offspring internalizing disorders in late adolescence.

Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study

Citation
Caspi A, Houts RM, Ambler A, et al. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e203221. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3221

Abstract

Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Videoconference-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan: One-Year Follow-Up of a Single-Arm Trial

Citation
Matsumoto K, Hamatani S, Nagai K, Sutoh C, Nakagawa A, Shimizu E. Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Videoconference-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan: One-Year Follow-Up of a Single-Arm Trial JMIR Ment Health 2020;7(4):e17157 DOI: 10.2196/17157
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ABSTRACT

Background: Face-to-face individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and internet-based CBT (ICBT) without videoconferencing are known to have long-term effectiveness for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, videoconference-delivered CBT (VCBT) has not been investigated regarding its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria

Citation
Delroy CS, Ifeanyichukwu AO, Rachel BA (2020) Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil 9:188. doi: 10.37532/jabtr.2020.9(1).188
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One area of substance misuse among adolescents that is currently a problem, and has not been fully understood in the Nigerian context is the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse. Thus, to inform policy actions for reducing cough syrup abuse among Nigerian adolescents, this study explored the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse in two Southwest states of Nigeria, where substance abuse is rampant.

Tobacco use in adolescents and young people in Mexico who do not study and do not work

Citation
Bustos Gamiño, M., Villatoro Velázquez, J. A., Oliva Robles, N., López Brambila, M. Á., Fregoso Ito, D. A., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2015). Consumo de tabaco en adolescentes y jóvenes de México que no estudian y no trabajan. Revista internacional de investigación en adicciones, 1(1), 33-40.

Summary

Introduction: Lack of study or work opportunities increases the vulnerability of young people, who in the face of instability can start using tobacco or other addictive substances.

Objective: Analyze what tobacco use is like among groups of adolescents and young people who only study, only work, study and work, or do not study or work.

Sociodemographic differences between inhalable users, other drug users and non-consumer teens in a Mexican student sample

Citation
Medina-Mora, M. E., Rafful, C., Velázquez, J. A. V., Robles, N. O., Gamiño, M. B., & Moreno, M. (2015). Diferencias sociodemográficas entre usuarios de inhalables, usuarios de otras drogas y adolescentes no consumidores en una muestra mexicana de estudiantes. Revista inteRnacional de investigación en adicciones, 1(1), 6-15.

Summary

Introduction: Inhalables such as glue, thinner and other petroleum derivatives are one of the most widely used groups of substances among the Mexican adolescent population. Recent studies have shown that, along with marijuana, inhalables are the type of drug of choice for the young population.

The Impact of COPD and Smoking History on the Severity of Covid‐19: A Systemic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Citation
Source: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25889
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Abstract

Aims

Comorbidities are associated with the severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid‐19). This meta‐analysis aimed to explore the risk of severe Covid‐19 in patients with pre‐existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ongoing smoking history.

Exploring the Experiences of Social Service Providers regarding the Implementation of the National Drug Master Plan (2013-2017)

Citation
South African National Drug Master Plan (2013-2017)- Social Work Evaluative Study
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This research study entails an analysis and evaluation of the South African National Drug Master Plan for 2013-2017 through a Social Work perspective in the context of substance use disorder policy. It was done in fulfillment of requirements for a Masters Degree in Social Work with specialization in substance use disorders.

Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms among People with Regular or Dependent Use of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Bahji A, Stephenson C, Tyo R, Hawken ER, Seitz DP. Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms Among People With Regular or Dependent Use of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e202370. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.2370
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Abstract

Importance: Cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS)—a diagnostic indicator of cannabis use disorder—commonly occurs on cessation of heavy and prolonged cannabis use. To date, the prevalence of CWS syndrome has not been well described, nor have the factors potentially associated with CWS.

Factors Associated with Mental Health Outcomes among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019

Citation
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
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Abstract

Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed.

Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China.

COVID-19 and Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations for a Comprehensive Healthcare Response

Citation
Farhoudian, A., Baldacchino, A., Clark, N., Gerra, G., Ekhtiari, H., & Dom, G., et al. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations for a Comprehensive Healthcare Response. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 11(2), 129-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.11.covid19.1
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The coronavirus pandemic has become a sudden public health issue that has affected all communities around the world. Everyone has had to make adjustments to their lifestyles in a united effort to slow the spread of disease and prevent as many casualties as possible.

Interdependence of Risk and Protective Factors on Early Initiation of Substance Use

Citation
Trujillo, C. A., Obando, D., & Trujillo, A. (2019). An examination of the association between early initiation of substance use and interrelated multilevel risk and protective factors among adolescents. PLoS ONE 14(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225384
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The most important predictor for SUD later in life is early initiation of substance use during adolescence, thus prevention programs must target youth in delaying the onset of age of initiation. However, the interaction between both risk and protective factors on early initiation of substance use is not well studied.

The Self-Care Matrix: A Unifying Framework for Self-Care

Citation
El-Osta, A., Webber, D., Gnani, S., Banarsee, R., Mummery, D., Majeed, A., & Smith, P. (2019). The Self-Care Matrix: A unifying framework for self-care.-Selfcare Journal. SelfCare Journal.

We are seeing a global rise in long-term noncommunicable diseases, linked with our inability to protect our own wellbeing.

The World Health Organization defines self-care as: 

"the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote, maintain health, prevent disease and to cope with illness with or without the support of a health care provider."

Self‐Care for the Prevention and Management of Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals

Citation
Riegel, B., Moser, D. K., Buck, H. G., Dickson, V. V., Dunbar, S. B., Lee, C. S., ... & Webber, D. E. (2017). Self‐care for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and stroke: A scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9), e006997.

Due to the nature of their work, health care professionals frequently experience long hours, stress, burnout and compassion fatigue. If left unaddressed, these issues can lead to increased risks of mental and physical health problems.

One of the most effective ways of reducing stress-related issues is through practising self-care.