Cochrane Tobacco Addiction: Key Review Summaries
Below are two-page summaries of research carried out by the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation Electronic cigarettes for
This retrospective cohort study asks people who are in recovery or have not used alcohol or drugs for at least two years following meeting diagnostic criteria for having a SUD how many quit attempts they had made prior to success. The range was 0-100 previous attempts.
Question: What is the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and depression?
There has been increased interest in the role of cannabis for treating medical conditions. The availability of different cannabis-based products can make the side effects of exposure unpredictable. We sought to conduct a scoping review of systematic reviews assessing benefits and harms of cannabis-based medicines for any condition.
Background: Due to a resurgent debate on the misuse of P values, the Journal of Medical Internet Research is hosting a standing theme issue inviting the reanalysis of (primarily digital health) trial data using a Bayesian framework.
Objectives: To coherently examine the responsiveness of the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ) to different types of anti-smoking policies over an extended period of calendar time.
Health-related stigma remains a major barrier to improving health and well-being for vulnerable populations around the world. This collection on stigma research and global health emerged largely as a result of a 2017 meeting on the “The Science of Stigma Reduction” sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). An overwhelming consensus at the meeting was reached.
Delta 9‐tetrahydrocannabinol - a psychoactive compound found in cannabis - activates parts of the brain responsible for cognition, perception, anxiety, fear, memory and reward.
There are continuous debates about the link between cannabis use and psychotic disorders.
Globally, an estimated 15·6 million people aged 15–64 years inject drugs. Younger people who inject drugs are at higher risk of overdose, drug dependence, and blood-borne virus transmission and engaging in risky sexual behaviour.
Globally, alcohol consumption is estimated to cause more than 10% of the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including cirrhosis of the liver, respiratory disease, pancreatitis, cancers (oral and pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal), strokes and hypertension.
The harm that tobacco causes is clear. Research has confirmed the damage that smoking has on an individuals wellbeing as well as the wellbeing of those around them. More than 7 million deaths a year are the result of direct tobacco use while around 1.2 million are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke.
The use of amphetamines is a global public health concern. We summarise global data on use of amphetamines and mental health outcomes.
With the rise in e-cigarette use among youth and the ease to conceal marijuana use in e-cigarettes, identifying an association between youth marijuana use in e-cigarettes and marijuana legalization policies has important public health implications considering the changing marijuana landscape and the harms of marijuana use on adolescent development.
Question: Is 800 μg of naloxone hydrochloride administered intranasally as effective in reversing opioid overdose as the same dose administered intramuscularly?
Question: What is the rate of opioid overdose deaths among Medicare enrollees younger than 65 years who qualified for Medicare because of disability?
Question: Is there a biological association between D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) and alcohol use disorder?
Question: Are state punitive or reporting policies related to substance use during pregnancy associated with rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?
An evidence-based commentary review of both data and narratives that have been engaged to shape perception of drug use engagement and uptake. The paper invites the reader to re-examine the current themes through a different research lens.
This study was conducted to understand the predictive role of perceived mother, father and peer attachment in depressive symptoms of adolescents living with fathers diagnosed with substance use disorder. The quantitative study was conducted at various drug rehabilitation centres in Karachi from January 2016 to September 2017, and comprised adolescents living with fathers diagnosed with substance use disorder. Of the 150 participants, 82 (55%)
This article introduces the emergence of adulterant cutting agents in street drugs in the United States and considers the synergistic effects that is compounding the opioids crisis in the U.S. The article outlines the role of the Colombo Plan in pioneering identification of these substances around the world over the past years with support from the U.S.
Question: Is parental marijuana use associated with marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use and opioid misuse by adolescent and young adult offspring living in the same household?
Background: Rates of cannabis use among patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy are high, and cannabis use may be associated with outcomes of methadone maintenance therapy. We examined the effect of cannabis use on opioid use in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy to test the hypothesis that cannabis use is associated with a reduction in opioid use.
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk circumstances of alcohol consumption and strategies to successfully deal with relapse or abuse in a group of adolescents who completed a short intervention program. The study was conducted at the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes between 2007 and 2011; 70 adolescents attended school. The average age of the participants was 16.2 years (31 men and 39 women).
The objective of this work was to identify the non-specific variables related to the success of a short intervention program for adolescent alcohol-consuming adolescents, based on the experience and opinion of a group of therapists in the program. Information obtained in interviews with eight therapists and two project leaders is reported.
A study by Lucia Parente and Luís Camboim reports the abusive presence of alcohol consumption by children and adolescents in our society. Alcoholism is a serious problem and considered a public health risk. Laws no. 9,294/96 and 8,069/90 prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to children under eighteen years of age, as a way to prevent young people from the consequences arising from this type of narcotics.
This study examined a community–university partnership model for sustained, high-quality implementation of evidence-based interventions. In the context of a randomized study, it assessed whether implementation quality for both family-focused and school-based universal interventions could be achieved and maintained through community–university partnerships. It also conducted exploratory analyses of factors influencing implementation quality.
Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis.
Objectives: Many suicides take place in public locations, usually involving jumping from high places or use of transport networks. Previous research has largely focused on the effectiveness of physical barriers at frequently used locations. There have been no studies of human intervention to prevent suicides in public places.
Research on abuse linked with substance use has tended to focus on child abuse and intimate partner violence.
There have been considerably fewer studies on the nature of abuse committed by children against their parents.