Research

Reward Circuitry and Motivational Deficits in Social Anxiety Disorder: What Can Be Learned From Mouse Models?

Citation
Carlton, C. N., Sullivan-Toole, H., Ghane, M., & Richey, J. A. (2020). Reward Circuitry and Motivational Deficits in Social Anxiety Disorder: What Can be Learned from Mouse Models?. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 154.
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and serious psychiatric condition that typically emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood if left untreated. Prevailing interventions focus on modulating threat and arousal systems but produce only modest rates of remission. This gap in efficacy suggests that most mainstream treatment concepts do not sufficiently target core processes involved in the onset and maintenance of SAD.

How Does Parental Supply of Alcohol Affect Risk of Alcohol‐Related Harms in Early Adulthood?

Citation
Clare, P. J., Dobbins, T., Bruno, R., Peacock, A., Boland, V., Yuen, W. S., Aiken, A., Degenhardt, L., Kypri, K., Slade, T., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J. M., McBride, N., Horwood, J., McCambridge, J., and Mattick, R. P. ( 2020) The overall effect of parental supply of alcohol across adolescence on alcohol‐related harms in early adulthood – a prospective cohort study. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15005.

There is evidence to suggest that adolescents who receive alcohol from their parents are at higher risk of developing harmful drinking patterns later on in life.

Despite the concerning link, the knowledge around this subject remains unclear. 

A recent study in Australia has sought to gain a more reliable understanding of the issue through analysing longitudinal data.

Differences in Availability and Use of Medications for Opioid Use Disorder in Residential Treatment Settings in the United States

Citation
Huhn AS, Hobelmann JG, Strickland JC, et al. Differences in Availability and Use of Medications for Opioid Use Disorder in Residential Treatment Settings in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(2):e1920843. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20843
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Opioid use and Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) continues to be a significant public health concern in the United States.

Several medications for OUD (MOUDs) are now considered by the medical community to be the criterion standard in OUD recovery

While many individuals with opioid use disorder seek treatment at residential facilities to initiate long-term recovery, the availability and use of MOUDs in these facilities are unclear.

Heavy Cannabis Use, Dependence and the Brain

Citation
Kroon, E., Kuhns, L., Hoch, E., and Cousijn, J. ( 2020) Heavy cannabis use, dependence and the brain: a clinical perspective. Addiction, 115: 559– 572. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14776.

Although cannabis use disorder (CUD) is one of the most common substance use disorders (SUDs), the impact of CUD on the brain remains unclear and understudied.

In a recent article, published in Addiction journal, researchers from the University of Amsterdam and Ludwig Maximilan University have brought together the existing research on the relationship between heavy cannabis use, cannabis use disorder (CUD) and the brain.

Structural characteristics of subjective networks in Community Treatment

Citation
Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina
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Subjective networks are one of the central subjects of Community Treatment. This two-part brief presents some data on the structural characteristics of personal networks in order to have some benchmarks for describing the characteristics of subjective networks. The second part presents data from an exploratory study on the structural characteristics of subjective networks.

Is Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Effective for Addressing Substance Use among Adolescents?

Citation
Inman, D., El-Mallakh, P., Jensen, L., Ossege, J., & Scott, L. (2020). Addressing Substance Use in Adolescents: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 16(1), 69-73.

Nicotine, alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used substances among adolescents. These substances, however, can have serious negative consequences for brain development, making substance use among adolescents a major public health issue.

Differences between Girls and Boys at Treatment Entry and in Response to Treatment

Citation
Abdul Subor M, Elizabeth M, Gilberto G, Brian M, Thom B, et al. Implementation and Evaluation of a Psychoactive Substance Use Intervention for Children in Afghanistan: Differences Between Girls and Boys at Treatment Entry and in Response to Treatment. Glob J of Ped & Neonatol Car. 2(1): 2019. GJPNC.MS.ID.000527. DOI: 10.33552/GJPNC.2020.02.000527
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Psychoactive substance use among children in Afghanistan is an issue of concern. Somewhere around 300,000 children in the country have been exposed to opioids that either parents directly provided to them or by passive exposure. Evidence-based and culturally appropriate drug prevention

Should Cigarette Pack Sizes be Capped?

Citation
Blackwell, A. K. M., Lee, I., Scollo, M., Wakefield, M., Munafò, M. R., and Marteau, T. M. ( 2019) Should cigarette pack sizes be capped?. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14770.

In an attempt to prevent harmful tobacco use, countries have introduced policies such as the minimum number of cigarettes. This increases the cost of buying a packet of tobacco and it is hoped it will deter young people from buying.

In contrast, however, there is little regulation of the maximum number of cigarettes contained in a pack.

Use of E-cigarettes and Smoked Tobacco in Youth Aged 14–15 Years in New Zealand

Citation
Walker, N., Parag, V., Wong, S. F., Youdan, B., Broughton, B., Bullen, C., & Beaglehole, R. (2020). Use of e-cigarettes and smoked tobacco in youth aged 14–15 years in New Zealand: findings from repeated cross-sectional studies (2014–19). The Lancet Public Health.

Globally, the number of young people using e-cigarettes is rising. There is an ongoing debate as to whether vaping acts as a gateway for cigarette use later in life. The long term consequences remain unclear, and some argue we are seeing a new generation addicted to nicotine in a different form.

A recent study conducted in New Zealand has examined the latest trends in adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use from 2014 to 2019.

A Review of Alcohol and Drug Education and Early Intervention Programs in Australian Government Schools

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The Dalgarno Institute were proud to be part ANACAD commissioned consultancy on the effectiveness of AOD Education in Australian Government Schools. Review attached - The imperative of evidence-based demand reduction, 'all of school and community' education is not only vital, but effective when both Affective and Cognitive Education Domains are creatively and thoroughly used.
Dalgarno Institute

An Investigation into the Lasting Impact of Exposure to Alcohol and Drugs During Foetal Life

Citation
Koponen, A. M., Nissinen, N. M., Gissler, M., Sarkola, T., Autti-Rämö, I., & Kahila, H. (2019). Cohort profile: ADEF Helsinki–a longitudinal register-based study on exposure to alcohol and drugs during foetal life. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1455072519885719.

It is well recognised that substance use during pregnancy can harm the developing foetus, leading to potential cognitive dysfunction and mental and behavioural difficulties in later life.

Longitudinal studies, which track participants over an extended amount of time, allow researchers to examine specific factors that may influence the growth and development of an individual. 

Recreational Cannabis Legalization and Maternal Cannabis Use

Citation
Skelton, K. R., Hecht, A. A., & Benjamin-Neelon, S. E. (2020). Recreational Cannabis legalization in the US and maternal use during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030909
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With the rise in the number of states that have legalized recreational cannabis, the states considering legalization, and the increased prevalence of cannabis use among pregnant women, it is critical to understand the impacts of cannabis legalization for recreational use on the most vulnerable, our nation’s children.

Substance Use among Women and Children in Afghanistan: The Complexities of an Important Public Health Issue

Citation
Momand AS, Jones HE (2020) Substance Use among Women and Children in Afghanistan: The Complexities of an Important Public Health Issue. J Addict Addictv Disord 7: 33.
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National surveys of substance use among those living in Afghanistan show multiple substances are easily accessible and commonly used in combination. Substance use in Afghanistan is complex, compounded

An Up-To-Date Review of Brain Stimulation Techniques for Addiction Treatment

Citation
Zhang, J. J., Fong, K. N., Ouyang, R. G., Siu, A. M., & Kranz, G. S. (2019). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on craving and substance consumption in patients with substance dependence: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 114(12), 2137-2149. doi: 10.1111/add.14753
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This Recovery Research Institute review summarizes a recent meta-analysis of research on brain stimulation as a treatment for substance use disorders. The study finds that stimulation using specific methods on specific brain regions may have a positive effect on craving.

Predictors of Early Recovery after Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders in Uganda

Citation
David Kalema, Lore Van Damme, Sofie Vindevogel, Ilse Derluyn, Florien Meulewaeter & Wouter Vanderplasschen (2019): Predictors of Early Recovery after Treatment for Alcohol use Disorders in Uganda, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/07347324.2019.1692639
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Data on treatment for AUD (Alcohol Use Disorders) in developing countries are scarce. This study explores aspects of early recovery and correlates of alcohol use after residential AUD treatment in Uganda. 78 respondents were followed up using, among others, the ASI-6, HCSL-37A and WHOQOL–BREF. They were interviewed within two weeks after admission in residential treatment and six months later.

Study indicates interventions to reduce alcohol consumption by Brazilian university students

Citation
Silva, E. C. & Tucci, A. M. (2015). Intervenção Breve para Redução do Consumo de Álcool e suas Consequências em Estudantes Universitários Brasileiros
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University students are considered a risk population with regard to alcohol consumption, either by frequency of consumption or its consequences, which can even considerably affect the academic performance of the student. For this reason, alcohol consumption in this population has been the focus of concerns and searches for effective interventions to reduce consumption, as well as associated problems and consequences.

Risk of Persistence and Progression of Use of Five Cannabis Products after Experimentation among Adolescents

Citation
Barrington-Trimis, J. L., Cho, J., Ewusi-Boisvert, E., Hasin, D., Unger, J. B., Miech, R. A., & Leventhal, A. M. (2020). Risk of persistence and progression of use of 5 cannabis products after experimentation among adolescents. Jama Network Open, 3(1). doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19792.
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With many adolescents experimenting with cannabis and the variety of cannabis products available with each product varying in their THC level, mechanism of use, and intoxicating effects experienced, this study aimed to determine whether certain products are associated with persistent or frequent use among adolescents who experiment with cannabis.

Game On—Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation Reveals Sleeper Effects on Academic Attainment in a Randomized Trial of the Good Behavior Game

Citation
Ashworth, E., Panayiotou, M., Humphrey, N. et al. Game On—Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation Reveals Sleeper Effects on Academic Attainment in a Randomized Trial of the Good Behavior Game. Prev Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01074-6
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Abstract

To examine the efficacy of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in improving children’s reading attainment, and the extent to which this varies as a function of cumulative intervention intensity (dosage) and timing of outcome measurement. A 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven primary schools from three regions in England were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Efforts to Strengthen a Culture of Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Citation
Hanna, H., Wadih, M. & Giovanna, C. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s Efforts to Strengthen a Culture of Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Prev Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01088-5
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Abstract

This article discusses how decision-makers can be supported to strengthen a culture of prevention. This article presents an example of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s (UNODC) work to engage with decision-makers to create readiness, demand, and capacity for evidence-based prevention programming among them, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Referral to Slimming World in UK Stop Smoking Services (SWISSS) versus Stop Smoking Support Alone on Body Weight in Quitters: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial

Citation
Lycett D, Aveyard P, Farmer A, et al Referral to Slimming World in UK Stop Smoking Services (SWISSS) versus stop smoking support alone on body weight in quitters: results of a randomised controlled trial BMJ Open 2020;10:e032271. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032271
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Abstract

Introduction: Most people who stop smoking gain weight. Dietary modification may seem an obvious solution, but food restriction may increase cigarette craving and smoking relapse.

Trial design: An unblinded parallel randomised controlled trial.

Association between Substance Use and Personality among Mexico City’s School Children Aged 10-13

Citation
Maldonado, M. T. S., Natera-Rey, G., & Lozada, C. E. C. (2019). Association between substance use and personality among school children aged 10-13. Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, 5(2), 1-7.

Abstract

Introduction: Substance use is a problem that requires prevention strategies since childhood. It has been noticed that certain personality traits can play an important role in substance use in adolescence and early adulthood. It is essential to study the factors associated with substance use in order to develop and implement preventive interventions.

Association of Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity With Exposure to Tobacco Advertisement Among US Young Adults

Citation
Assari S. Association of Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity With Exposure to Tobacco Advertisement Among US Young Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(1):e1919393. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19393
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Key Points

Question: What are the associations of educational attainment with exposure to tobacco advertisements among racial/ethnic groups of young adults?

The Effectiveness of Cigarette Pack Health Warning Labels with Religious Messages in an Urban Setting in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Citation
Kaplan, B., Hardesty, J. J., Martini, S., Megatsari, H., Kennedy, R. D., & Cohen, J. E. (2019). The Effectiveness of Cigarette Pack Health Warning Labels with Religious Messages in an Urban Setting in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(21), 4287.
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Abstract

This study sought to assess the effectiveness of religious cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) in Indonesia, a country with a high public health burden from tobacco use. The study tested different religious and nonreligious messages related to suicide, secondhand smoke (SHS) and gangrene. Participants were smokers and non-smokers from Surabaya, Indonesia (n = 817).

Brain-Wide Functional Architecture Remodeling by Alcohol Dependence and Abstinence

Citation
Kimbrough, A., Lurie, D. J., Collazo, A., Kreifeldt, M., Sidhu, H., Macedo, G. C., D’Esposito, M., Contet, C., & George, O. (2020). Brain-wide functional architecture remodeling by alcohol dependence and abstinence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909915117
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This mouse study describes the structural differences in brains of mice who are dependent on alcohol compared to those who are not. Rather than looking at function of specific sections of the brain, the study looked at the overall structure of the brain to understand differences in a new way.

The article is open access - full article available via the link

Co-Occurring Alcohol Use Disorder and Anxiety Bridging Psychiatric, Psychological, and Neurobiological Perspectives

Citation
Anker, J. J., & Kushner, M. G. (2019). Co-occurring alcohol use disorder and anxiety: bridging psychiatric, psychological, and neurobiological perspectives. Alcohol research: current reviews, 40(1).
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Open Access Abstract:

The Problematic Relationship Between Youth Anxiety and Later Alcohol Use

Citation
Dyer, M. L., Easey, K. E., Heron, J., Hickman, M., & Munafò, M. R. (2019). Associations of child and adolescent anxiety with later alcohol use and disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (PDF). Addiction, 114(6), 968-982. doi: 10.1111/add.14575

Researchers have continuously debated the link between anxiety and alcohol use. However, despite the previous examination of the direction and strength of the association, the form of the relationship remains unclear.

National, Regional, and Global Burdens of Disease Linked to Alcohol Use

Citation
Shield, K., Manthey, J., Rylett, M., Probst, C., Wettlaufer, A., Parry, C. D., & Rehm, J. (2020). National, regional, and global burdens of disease from 2000 to 2016 attributable to alcohol use: a comparative risk assessment study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(1), e51-e61.

Alcohol use continues to be one of the leading risk factors for the global burden of disease. This is despite growing awareness of the harm alcohol has the potential to cause and many worldwide initiatives and campaigns to tackle the issue.

Even though the global trend in alcohol use shows an overall increase, trends have varied in different parts of the world.