Research

Pricing of Tobacco Products During, and After, the Introduction of Plain Packaging

Citation
Critchlow, Nathan, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Kathryn Angus, Douglas Eadie, and Anne Marie MacKintosh. "Pricing of tobacco products during, and after, the introduction of standardized packaging: an observational study of retail price data from independent and convenience (small) retailers in the United Kingdom." Addiction (2018).
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In 2016 the UK government introduced a policy that required factory-made cigarettes and roll your own tobacco to be sold in plain packaging with pictorial and text warnings.

Prenatal Marijuana Use: Perspectives of Pregnant Women

Citation
Chang, Judy C., Jill A. Tarr, Cynthia L. Holland, Natacha M. De Genna, Gale A. Richardson, Keri L. Rodriguez, Jeanelle Sheeder et al. "Beliefs and attitudes regarding prenatal marijuana use: Perspectives of pregnant women who report use." Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2019).
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Marijuana is the drug most commonly used by pregnant women. Understanding the beliefs, attitudes and experience of marijuana use during pregnancy will help practitioners design motivational intervention for women.

Treatment Gap, Help-Seeking, Stigma and Magnitude of Alcohol Use Disorder in Rural Ethiopia

Citation
Zewdu et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:4 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0192-7
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Abstract

Background

Although alcohol use disorders contribute a high proportion of population disease burden, the treatment gap is large, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To narrow this gap, contextually relevant evidence is needed to inform service development in low- and middle-income country settings.

Evaluation of State-Mandated Reporting of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome — Six States, 2013–2017

Citation
Jilani SM, Frey MT, Pepin D, et al. Evaluation of State-Mandated Reporting of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome — Six States, 2013–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:6–10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6801a2
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

In 2014, in the United States, an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) was born every 15 minutes. Historically, NAS surveillance has depended on hospital discharge data, frequently with a time lag, limiting ability to rapidly direct public health resources.

What is added by this report?

Overdose Deaths Involving Fentanyl and Fentanyl Analogs — New York City, 2000–2017

Citation
Colon-Berezin C, Nolan ML, Blachman-Forshay J, Paone D. Overdose Deaths Involving Fentanyl and Fentanyl Analogs — New York City, 2000–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:37–40. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6802a3
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

During 1999–2017, the rate of drug overdose deaths nationally approximately tripled; approximately 70,000 overdose deaths occurred nationally in 2017, with nearly 68% involving an opioid.

What is added by this report?

Opioid Prescribing Rates in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties among Primary Care Providers Using an Electronic Health Record System

Citation
García MC, Heilig CM, Lee SH, et al. Opioid Prescribing Rates in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties Among Primary Care Providers Using an Electronic Health Record System — United States, 2014–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:25–30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6802a1
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Opioid prescribing rates vary by county urbanization level and are declining overall.

What is added by this report?

Age‐Varying Effects of Cannabis Use Frequency and Disorder on Symptoms of Psychosis, Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents and Adults

Citation
Leadbeater, Bonnie J., Megan E. Ames, and Ashley N. Linden‐Carmichael. "Age‐varying effects of cannabis use frequency and disorder on symptoms of psychosis, depression and anxiety in adolescents and adults." Addiction 114, no. 2 (2019): 278-293.
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A recent study, published in the Journal of Addiction, has examined the association of cannabis use, cannabis use disorder and symptoms of psychosis, depression and anxiety in an adolescent and adult sample.

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Intimate Partner Violence among Women Who Inject Drugs in Europe

Citation
Tirado-Muñoz, Judit, Gail Gilchrist, Gabriele Fischer, Avril Taylor, Jacek Moskalewicz, Cinzia Giammarchi, Birgit Köchl et al. "Psychiatric comorbidity and intimate partner violence among women who inject drugs in Europe: a cross-sectional study." Archives of women's mental health 21, no. 3 (2018): 259-269.
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It is recognised that women who inject drugs are a highly vulnerable group of people and a section of the population who are at higher risk of showing comorbidities. This further impacts their well-being and can create a barrier to seeking help. There is also a believed link between intimate partner violence frequency and drug use.

Cognitive and Mindfulness‐Based Therapy for Adolescents with Co‐Occurring Post‐Traumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Fortuna, Lisa R., Michelle V. Porche, and Auralyd Padilla. "A treatment development study of a cognitive and mindfulness‐based therapy for adolescents with co‐occurring post‐traumatic stress and substance use disorder." Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 91, no. 1 (2018): 42-62.
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Early life experiences of trauma are known to significantly increase the risk of substance use in adolescence and adulthood.

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users in Three Vietnamese Mountainous Provinces

Citation
Nguyen et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:3 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0191-8
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Abstract

Background

Globally, people who inject drugs are highly vulnerable to HIV transmission. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs are one of the most cost-effective mechanisms to substitute opioid use and improve the quality of life of patients.

Overview of European Forensic Youth Care: Towards an Integrative Mission for Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Juvenile Offenders

Citation
Souverein et al. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (2019) 13:6 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-019-0265-4
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Abstract

All over Europe youth delinquency is decreasing; our understanding of the factors related to juvenile delinquency and the characteristics of effective forensic youth care has increased substantially.

Evaluación del programa "Familias fuertes: amor y límites" en familias con adolescentes de 10 a 14 años

Citation
Corea, V., Loreto, M., Zubarew, T., Valenzuela, M., Teresa, M., & Salas, F. (2012). Evaluación del programa" Familias fuertes: amor y límites" en familias con adolescentes de 10 a 14 años. Revista médica de Chile, 140(6), 726-731.
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Background: "Strong Families" is a family program aimed at preventing risk behaviors in adolescents from 10 to 14 years of age. It has been developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and is based on the Iowa Strengthening Families Program. This program has been certified and has been proven to effectively prevent adolescent drug and alcohol abuse in several countries around the globe. 

Managing Alcohol-Related Attendances in Emergency Care: Can Diversion to Bespoke Services Lessen the Burden?

Citation
Irving A, Goodacre S, Blake J, et al Managing alcohol-related attendances in emergency care: can diversion to bespoke services lessen the burden? Emerg Med J 2018;35:79-82.
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Abstract

Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) has a long history of burdening emergency care services. Healthcare systems around the world have explored a variety of different services that divert AAI away from EDs to better manage their condition. Little formal evaluation has been undertaken, particularly in the UK where alcohol misuse is one of the highest in the world.

Conditional Probabilities of Substance Use Disorders and Associated Risk Factors

Citation
Marel, C., Sunderland, M., Mills, K. L., Slade, T., Teesson, M., & Chapman, C. (2019). Conditional probabilities of substance use disorders and associated risk factors: Progression from first use to use disorder on alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, sedatives and opioids. Drug and alcohol dependence, 194, 136-142.
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Highlights

Pre-existing mental disorders increases the risk of developing SUD.

Dopamine Neurons Projecting to Medial Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Heroin Reinforcement

Citation
Corre, J., van Zessen, R., Loureiro, M., Patriarchi, T., Tian, L., Pascoli, V., & Lüscher, C. (2018). Dopamine neurons projecting to medial shell of the nucleus accumbens drive heroin reinforcement. eLife, 7, e39945.
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Abstract

The dopamine (DA) hypothesis posits the increase of mesolimbic dopamine levels as a defining commonality of addictive drugs, initially causing reinforcement, eventually leading to compulsive consumption. While much experimental evidence from psychostimulants supports this hypothesis, it has been challenged for opioid reinforcement.

Sex-Dependent Effects of in Utero Cannabinoid Exposure on Cortical Function

Citation
Bara, A., Manduca, A., Bernabeu, A., Borsoi, M., Serviado, M., Lassalle, O., ... & Trezza, V. (2018). Sex-dependent effects of in utero cannabinoid exposure on cortical function. eLife, 7, e36234.
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Abstract

Cannabinoids can cross the placenta, thus may interfere with fetal endocannabinoid signaling during neurodevelopment, causing long-lasting deficits. Despite increasing reports of cannabis consumption during pregnancy, the protracted consequences of prenatal cannabinoid exposure (PCE) remain incompletely understood.

Cannabis Use and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Citation
Vaucher, J., Keating, B. J., Lasserre, A. M., Gan, W., Lyall, D. M., Ward, J., ... & Holmes, M. V. (2017). Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study. Molecular psychiatry.
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Abstract

Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia.

Access to Care for People with Alcohol Use Disorder in France

Citation
Costa M, Marcellin F, Coste M, et al Access to care for people with alcohol use disorder in France: a mixed-method cross-sectional study protocol (ASIA) BMJ Open 2018;8:e024669. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024669
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Abstract

Introduction: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health concern worldwide. In France, only 10% of people with AUD (PWAUD) receive medical care. General practitioners (GP) are one of the main entry points for AUD care.

Effectiveness Bank Analysis. REVISED: Strong Therapeutic Relationships Help Clients Get Where They Want to Be

Citation
Psychotherapy: 2018, 55(4), p. 316-340.
Publication Date

Comprehensive review for the American Psychological Association concludes that the working relationship between clients and counsellors/therapists is one of the largest and most consistent determinants of outcomes. Includes practice recommendations.

Overcoming Clinician and Parent Ambivalence: General Practitioners' Support of Children of Parents with Physical or Mental Illness and/or Substance Abuse

Citation
Hafting M, Gullbrå F, Anderssen N, Rørtveit G, Smith-Sivertsen T and van Doesum K (2019) Overcoming Clinician and Parent Ambivalence: General Practitioners’ Support of Children of Parents With Physical or Mental Illness and/or Substance Abuse. Front. Psychiatry 9:724. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00724
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Children who are next of kin to parents with physical or mental illness and/or substance abuse need access to mental health support and several cost-effective interventions are available. Because most parents in the target group often consult general practitioners (GPs), GPs may have a crucial role in identifying burdened children and ensuring their follow-up.

Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users

Citation
Anic GM, Sawdey MD, Jamal A, Trivers KF. Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users — United States, 2015–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1353–1357. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6749a1
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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Most tobacco product use begins during adolescence or young adulthood, increasing the risk for lifelong nicotine addiction and adverse health effects.

What is added by this report?

Adversity, Cannabis Use and Psychotic Experiences

Citation
Morgan, C., Reininghaus, U., Reichenberg, A., Frissa, S., Hotopf, M., Hatch, S. L., & SELCoH Study Team. (2014). Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 346-353.
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Abstract

Background

There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity.

Aims

Substance Use Disorders among Veterans

Citation
Boden, Matthew Tyler, and Katherine J. Hoggatt. "Substance use disorders among veterans in a nationally representative sample: prevalence and associated functioning and treatment utilization." Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 79, no. 6 (2018): 853-861.
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Individuals may use substances as a coping strategy for dealing with the stress and trauma they have experienced.
Individuals may use substances as a coping strategy for dealing with the stress and trauma they have experienced.

Improvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders through Adopting Evidence-Based Practices in Pakistan

Citation
U. Shamim. Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
Publication Date

Background: The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s 2014 survey estimated that there are 6.7 million Pakistanis aged 15-64 who are illegal substance users. In 2014, Pakistan’s drug treatment capacities remained insufficient to meet demand reduction, with fewer than 100 clinics operating nationwide with the capacity to treat 30,000 substance users.

Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life in a Large National Sample of Patients Receiving Opioid Substitution Treatment in Germany

Citation
Strada et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:2 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0187-9
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Abstract

Background

Knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) is limited and fragmented. The present study examines the HRQOL of a large national sample of OST patients in Germany and sociodemographic and clinical correlates.

HIV Prevention Intervention for Substance Users: A Review of the Literature

Citation
Elkbuli et al. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2019) 14:1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0189-7
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Abstract

Background

Behavioral Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in substance users, which is associated with higher risk for contracting HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse or syringe-based exposure.