Cochrane Tobacco Addiction: Key Review Summaries
Below are two-page summaries of research carried out by the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation Electronic cigarettes for
Adolescence is a critical period of vulnerability to substance use. Recent research has shown that gender differences in adolescence substance use are complex and in constant flux. The present study aims to investigate gender differences in substance use and initiation patterns in male and female adolescents, and to assess individual, family, peer, and school associated factors of these patterns.
Findings of this comprehensive review seem to almost entirely deflate what in the mid-2000s was a bubble of enthusiasm for parental programmes as a way to prevent or reduce drinking among teenagers - but despite this overall verdict, some interventions have had remarkable results.
Globally, substance use disorders are prevalent and remain an intractable public health problem for health care systems. This study aims to provide a global picture of substance use disorders research.
Objectives: This study aims to assess the prevalence of health problems (eg, insomnia, binge-eating, substance use and ill health) among UK doctors and to investigate whether occupational distress increases the risk of health problems.
Geographical location and diverse cultural influence make Bangladesh vulnerable for substance use related problems. It is impairing public health, corrupting institutions, retarding socio-economic development, and in some cases, impacting state security. It has been observed that many patients relapse into previous substance using behavior after completing treatment. The study objective was to look into the factors which impede recovery.
Estudio de un caso práctico de un usuario de un centro ambulatorio de atención a drogodependencias a través de los patrones funcionales de salud de M. Gordon desde el modelo de H. Peplau.
Se describe el modelo teórico de Peplau así como la valoración de enfermería según M. Gordon atendiendo a cada patrón y a su significado según la experiencia de las autoras.
Instead of a set programme, a clinic in London tried offering patients prescribed methadone or buprenorphine but still using heroin or cocaine a selection from a suite of well-supported psychological interventions tailored to the patient, and then systematically re-tailored in the light of how they responded.
The practice of binge drinking has in recent decades consolidated what is known as the ‘culture of intoxication’ among young people of Spain. This has coincided with the increase in the use of mobile-phone technology and of social networks within the night-time economy.
Objectives: Brief interventions (BI) for smoking and risky drinking are effective and cost-effective policy approaches to reducing alcohol harm currently used in primary care in England; however, little is known about their contribution to health inequalities.
Addiction is a complex and challenging condition with many contributing factors. Although addictive behaviors appear to be individual choices, behavior alterations cannot be addressed successfully without considering characteristics of the physical and social environments in which individuals live, work, and play.
Prevalence of smoking in Indonesia is on the increase. The trend is particularly noticeable among Indonesian adolescents with smoking in early adolescents increasing from 9.5 to 17.5% from 2001 to 2010.
The main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can impair driving performance. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabis component, is thought to mitigate certain adverse effects of THC. It is possible then that cannabis containing equivalent CBD and THC will differentially affect driving and cognition relative to THC-dominant cannabis.
Recent trends both in the UK and also more widely in an international context suggest underage drinking is declining amongst young people. However, it is believed some groups of young people are not following this trend.
There has been increasing support for the engagement of people who use mental services in the process of policy improvement. It would seem to make sense that those most directly affected by policy responses should have their views represented. This brings in to question the alternate forms of ‘evidence’ that can be used as part of evidence-based practice.
[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To understand the mental health treatment gap in the Region of the Americas by examining the prevalence of mental health disorders, use of mental health services, and the global burden of disease. Methods. Data from community-based surveys of mental disorders in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, and the United States were utilized.
Studies have found that clinicians with higher education and/or attainment of national certification have a more favorable outlook regarding the adoption of evidence-based practices. However, staff hiring decisions may be based on a multitude of factors, including available resources and demands stemming from different funders.
The degree to which the relationship between alcohol use and sleeplessness is unidirectional or reciprocal is unclear due to great variation among the results of previous studies.
Up to now, little is known about the metabolic pathways of new fentanyl analogs that have recently emerged on the drug markets worldwide with high potential for producing addiction and severe adverse effects including coma and death. For some of the compounds, limited information on the metabolism has been published, however, for others so far no information is available.
To collate prevalence estimates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among special subpopulations (defined by service use).
Alcohol misuse in the UK armed forces is more than double than that of the general population, yet many of those who drink at harmful levels do not seek help. Preliminary research has shown how effective digital technologies can be used as a health intervention.
In Iran, alcohol consumption, production, and trade are criminalised for Muslim citizens; however, bootleg alcohol and harmful alcohol consumption is a burden that should not be overlooked.
Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is h
Reducing the harms of youth substance use is a global priority. Parents have the potential to play a key role in these efforts. However, it is felt that parents are often unsure about how to address substance use with their children. Parent responses to youth substance use are often grounded in abstinence and critiqued as ineffective and unresponsive to youth contexts.
The internet allows us to connect and interact with people from around the world. Online networks have increasingly been used as a source of health information.
Objective: We aimed to analyze sex differences in the DSM-5 criteria among patients admitted to their first treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Methods: Assessment of AUD was carried out using DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in a multicenter study (CohRTA) within the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders.
Objective: To test if precollege drinking data gathered during an online brief intervention are associated with problems and could inform screening for campus alcohol prevention efforts.
Participants: Two cohorts of incoming students (N = 5300).
The experiencing of intense emotions, low-stress tolerance, avoidance, and feelings of a loss of control can negatively impact substance use disorder treatment outcomes. This type of emotion dysregulation may be linked with problems with interoceptive processing, which is the experience of sensations from within the body. And in turn, it is believed that interoceptive processing may influence certain behaviours and decision making.
Clients’ perceptions of and reactions to treatment are the focus of this final of four bulletins recapping 16 reviews for the American Psychological Association. Emerging from psychotherapy research worldwide are practical and effective ways to assess, shape and use these perceptions and reactions to improve outcomes for substance use clients.
Treatment for drug use disorders (DUD) can be effective, but only a small proportion of people with DUD seek or receive treatment. Research on racial and ethnic treatment differences and disparities remains unclear. Understanding racial and ethnic differences and disparities in drug treatment is necessary in order to develop a more effective referral system and to improve the accessibility of treatment.