Research

Changing Patterns of Substance Misuse in Adult Prisons and Service Responses

Citation
Changing Patterns of Substance Misuse in Adult Prisons and Service Responses. [UK] HM Inspectorate of Prisons, 2015
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Inspection findings were supplemented by fieldwork in eight prisons in 2014 to generate an overall picture of drug use and responses to it in prisons in England and Wales. In the face of rapidly changing and varied drug use patterns, policy and operational responses were seen as insufficiently flexible and dynamic, though treatment had “dramatically” improved.

The Licensing Act (2003): Its Uses and Abuses 10 Years on

Citation
London: Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2016.
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Seen as excluding health concerns and requiring an individualistic and ‘premises by premises’ approach, interviews with stakeholders and a revisiting of the 2003 Licensing Act for England and Wales suggest it could nevertheless be used to address public health and to implement licensing policies and decisions based on likely overall local impact.

Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention for Young Adults

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Excessive or risky alcohol use is a preventable cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Alcohol use is a common preventable cancer risk factor among young adults; it is associated with increased risk of developing at least six types of cancer. Alcohol consumed during early adulthood may pose a higher risk of female breast cancer than alcohol consumed later in life.

The Effects of Cannabis among Adults with Chronic Pain and an Overview of General Harms

Citation
Nugent SM, Morasco BJ, O'Neil ME, Freeman M, Low A, Kondo K, et al. The Effects of Cannabis among Adults with Chronic Pain and an Overview of General Harms: A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print 15 August 2017] doi: 10.7326/M17-0155
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Abstract

Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain.

Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations.

Heavy Drinking and the Adolescent Brain

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During adolescence, the brain is still maturing. This includes not only biological, but also psychosocial behavioural development.

So, what are the effects of heavy drinking on the adolescent brain?

This question is the focus of a literature review recently published in the academic journal Frontiers in Psychology.

It found that the consequences can be serious.

Equipping Community Pharmacy Workers as Agents for Health Behaviour Change

Citation
Steed L, Sohanpal R, James W, et al Equipping community pharmacy workers as agents for health behaviour change: developing and testing a theory-based smoking cessation intervention BMJ Open 2017;7:e015637. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015637
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Abstract

Objective: To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates.

Design: Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention.

Education, Leisure and Adolescent Drinking: What's the Link?

A new study published in The International Journal of Drug Policy investigates differences in drinking patterns between Russian adolescents who favour vocational training and those who do not.

Results suggest that the former educational pathway is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, even before entry into vocational schools and colleges.

Marijuana and Alcohol Use as Predictors of Academic Achievement

Citation
Patte KA, Qian W, Leatherdale ST. Marijuana and Alcohol Use as Predictors of Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis among Youth in the COMPASS Study. J Sch Health. 2017; 87: 310-318.
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ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

We tested the effect of initiating marijuana and alcohol use at varying frequencies on academic indices.

Implementation & Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan

Citation
[1] L. C. Miller, M. Timouri, J. Wijnker, and J. G. Schaller, “Afghan refugee children and mothers,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 148, no. 7, pp. 704–708, 1994. [2] Z. Stanton, (2014). Interactive Timeline: War in Afghanistan Retrieved 25 April 2016., from http://wilsonquarterly.com/ quarterly/spring-2014-afghanistan/interactive-timeline-war-inafghanistan/. [3] B. L. Cardozo, O. O. Bilukha, C. A. Crawford et al., “Mental health, social functioning, and disability in postwar Afghanistan,” Journal of the AmericanMedical Association, vol. 292, no. 5, pp. 575–584, 2004. [4] UNICEF. (2013). Afghanistan: Statistics, from http://www .unicef.org/infobycountry/afghanistan statistics.html. [5] UNESCO. (2014). International Literacy Data 2014 Retrieved 25 April 2016, from http://www.uis.unesco.org/ literacy/Pages/literacy-data-release-2014.aspx. [6] UNODC. (2010). Drug Use in Afghanistan: 2009 Survey Retrieved 26 April 2016, from https://www .unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Afghan
Publication Date

The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment.

Morphine versus Methadone Treatment for Neonatal Withdrawal and Impact on Early Infant Development

Citation
Burke S, Beckwith AM. "Morphine versus Methadone Treatment for Neonatal Withdrawal and Impact on Early Infant Development." Global Pediatric Health. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X17721128
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Abstract

Objective: Compare developmental outcomes in infants treated with morphine versus methadone.

Tackling Youth Substance Use with 12-Step Programmes

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A new study recently published in the academic journal Addiction suggests that substance use treatment programmes that incorporate 12-step practices, such as that used by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), are more effective for combatting substance use disorders (SUDs) among youth than the current treatment approach.

Binge Drinking and Total Alcohol Consumption from 16 to 43 Years of Age Are Associated with Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose in Women

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Abstract

Background

Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels.

Review: Pharmacogenetics of Alcoholism Treatment: Implications of Ethnic Diversity

Citation
Cservenka, A., Yardley, M. M. and Ray, L. A. (2017), Review: Pharmacogenetics of Alcoholism Treatment: Implications of Ethnic Diversity. Am J Addict, 26: 516–525. doi:10.1111/ajad.12463
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Abstract

Background and Objectives

Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations.

Using Behavioral Triage in Court-Supervised Treatment of DUI Offenders

Citation
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly: 2015, 33, p. 44-63.
Publication Date

San Joaquin county in California has pointed the way forward to a system which conserves treatment resources yet achieves greater reductions in drink/drug-driving incidents. The first evaluation of systematically escalating offenders to treatment if they fail a less intensive sentence found significantly reduced recidivism and accidents, and evidence that related injuries also fell.

Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Adult Offspring of Alcohol-Consuming Dams after Neonatal Treatment with Thyroxin or Metformin

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2–11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment.

Alcohol Affects Brain Functional Connectivity and Its Coupling with Behavior: Greater Effects in Male Heavy Drinkers

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Abstract

Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior.

Infant Morbidity and Mortality Attributable to Prenatal Smoking in Chile

Citation
Cerda J, Bambs C, Vera C. Infant Morbidity and Mortality Attributable to Prenatal Smoking in Chile. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2017;41:e106.
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Abstract

Objective: To estimate annual infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in Chile during 2008−2012.

Long Lasting Effects of Chronic Heavy Cannabis Abuse

Citation
Nestoros, J. N., Vakonaki, E., Tzatzarakis, M. N., Alegakis, A., Skondras, M. D. and Tsatsakis, A. M. (2017), Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse. Am J Addict, 26: 335–342. doi:10.1111/ajad.12529
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Abstract

Background and Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use.

Advertising of Tobacco Products at Point of Sale: Who Are More Exposed in Brazil?

Citation
Ferreira-Gomes AB, De Moura L, De Araújo-Andrade SS, Lacerda-Mendes F, Pérez CA, Abaakouk Z. Advertising of Tobacco Products at Point of Sale: Who Are More Exposed in Brazil? Salud Publica Mex 2017;59 (suppl 1):S105-S116. http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/7831
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Abstract

Objective: To describe the adult population perception of cigarette advertising at point of sale, according to their tobacco use status and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age, race/color, region, household location and schooling. 

Physicians’ Views on the Role of Smoking in Smoking-Related Diseases

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Abstract

Background

Previous reports have shown that physicians who smoke underestimate the effects of smoking on health and this influences their practice. This study was designed to investigate the views of Estonian physicians on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases.

Please note that the content provided by the ISSUP Knowledge Share does not necessarily reflect the views of ISSUP. It is provided to inform and stimulate discussion of key issues in the field with a view to encouraging evidence-based, high quality and ethical policy and practice. While every effort is made to moderate submissions by external users, exercise caution before assuming these to be grounded in sound scientific practice as this may not always be the case.