Towards a New Consensus for Addiction Medicine Training
A new study asks for the opinions of addiction experts, with a view to reaching a consensus on the necessary core skills that medical education ought to cover.
Inspection findings were supplemented by fieldwork in eight prisons in 2014 to generate an overall picture of drug use and responses to it in prisons in England and Wales. In the face of rapidly changing and varied drug use patterns, policy and operational responses were seen as insufficiently flexible and dynamic, though treatment had “dramatically” improved.
Seen as excluding health concerns and requiring an individualistic and ‘premises by premises’ approach, interviews with stakeholders and a revisiting of the 2003 Licensing Act for England and Wales suggest it could nevertheless be used to address public health and to implement licensing policies and decisions based on likely overall local impact.
Excessive or risky alcohol use is a preventable cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Alcohol use is a common preventable cancer risk factor among young adults; it is associated with increased risk of developing at least six types of cancer. Alcohol consumed during early adulthood may pose a higher risk of female breast cancer than alcohol consumed later in life.
Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain.
Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations.
Almost two thirds of men in the UK Armed Forces are considered to drink harmful amounts of alcohol.
This is compared with around one third of the average population.
During adolescence, the brain is still maturing. This includes not only biological, but also psychosocial behavioural development.
So, what are the effects of heavy drinking on the adolescent brain?
This question is the focus of a literature review recently published in the academic journal Frontiers in Psychology.
It found that the consequences can be serious.
Objective: To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates.
Design: Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention.
Studies on contraceptive use by patients with substance use disorders (SUD) show a concerning low use of contraception.
New psychoactive substances (NPS), sometimes referred to as ‘legal highs’, are new drugs that have received much media attention of late.
A new study published in Public Health Research reviewed existing research into NPS with the view to finding out:
A new study published in The International Journal of Drug Policy investigates differences in drinking patterns between Russian adolescents who favour vocational training and those who do not.
Results suggest that the former educational pathway is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, even before entry into vocational schools and colleges.
Latest research suggests that the impairment of the lateral habenula (LB) – the region of the brain known to register negative experiences – can contribute to the development of drug addiction.
Much the result of a poor understanding of how to treat chronic pain, the United States has in recent years been rocked by an unprecedented drug crisis: The opioid epidemic.
We tested the effect of initiating marijuana and alcohol use at varying frequencies on academic indices.
The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment.
Objective: Compare developmental outcomes in infants treated with morphine versus methadone.
A new study recently published in the academic journal Addiction suggests that substance use treatment programmes that incorporate 12-step practices, such as that used by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), are more effective for combatting substance use disorders (SUDs) among youth than the current treatment approach.
‘Second-hand harm’ from alcohol use can include accidents and/or violence, interrupted sleep, destruction of property, relationship and/or financial problems.
Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels.
A new study that provides details of drinking habits and influential factors among Australian teenagers appears in the latest edition of the academic journal BMC Public Health.
The investigation’s findings notably include:
Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations.
Opioid misuse and addiction is an ongoing and rapidly evolving public health crisis, requiring innovative scientific solutions.
San Joaquin county in California has pointed the way forward to a system which conserves treatment resources yet achieves greater reductions in drink/drug-driving incidents. The first evaluation of systematically escalating offenders to treatment if they fail a less intensive sentence found significantly reduced recidivism and accidents, and evidence that related injuries also fell.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2–11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment.
Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior.
A new study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) suggests there to be a correlation between childhood psychiatric disorders and an increased risk of developing addiction in adulthood.
Objective: To estimate annual infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in Chile during 2008−2012.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use.
Objective: To describe the adult population perception of cigarette advertising at point of sale, according to their tobacco use status and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age, race/color, region, household location and schooling.
Previous reports have shown that physicians who smoke underestimate the effects of smoking on health and this influences their practice. This study was designed to investigate the views of Estonian physicians on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases.
Multidimensional family therapy addresses:
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