Research

Understanding Resilience

Citation
Wu, G., Feder, A., Cohen, H., Kim, J. J., Calderon, S., Charney, D. S., & Mathé, A. A. (2013). Understanding resilience. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 7, 10.

Although it is a term that is frequently used, understanding what it means to be resilient or develop resilience is not always straight forward.

In an article published in the Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience, the researchers interpret resilience as: 

Adolescent Brain Development, Substance Use, and Psychotherapeutic Change

Citation
Wetherill, R., & Tapert, S. F. (2013). Adolescent brain development, substance use, and psychotherapeutic change. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(2), 393.

Adolescence involves dramatic biologic, psychological, and behavioural changes.

Adolescents respond, learn and explore their environment, forming new relationships and further developing their identity.

It is often a time where individuals are more likely to participate in risky behaviour, frequently influenced by substance use. Substance use among adolescents ranges from experimentation to severe substance use disorders.

Psychiatric Symptoms Caused by Cannabis Constituents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Hindley, G., Beck, K., Borgan, F., Ginestet, C. E., McCutcheon, R., Kleinloog, D., ... & Howes, O. D. (2020). Psychiatric symptoms caused by cannabis constituents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry.
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Summary

Background

Approximately 188 million people use cannabis yearly worldwide, and it has recently been legalised in 11 US states, Canada, and Uruguay for recreational use. The potential for increased cannabis use highlights the need to better understand its risks, including the acute induction of psychotic and other psychiatric symptoms.

Association of Opioids Prescribed to Family Members With Opioid Overdose Among Adolescents and Young Adults

Citation
Nguyen AP, Glanz JM, Narwaney KJ, Binswanger IA. Association of Opioids Prescribed to Family Members With Opioid Overdose Among Adolescents and Young Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201018. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1018
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Abstract

Importance: Family members are cited as a common source of prescription opioids used for nonmedical reasons. However, the overdose risk associated with exposure to opioids prescribed to family members among adolescents and young adults is not well established.

Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019

Citation
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
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Abstract

Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed.

Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China.

Survey on COVID-19 in Pakistan

Citation
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfkAD4x68SOmoVdOJBvPnVvgVeSxCgJAoSq4ULtYZzseKZvWg/viewform?usp=sf_link
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EQUIP Research & Development Consultants has designed this survey to know the level of Awareness regarding the pandemic of COVID-19 among the general population of Pakistan.

 

Validation of an Electronic Health Record–Based Suicide Risk Prediction Modeling Approach Across Multiple Health Care Systems

Citation
Barak-Corren Y, Castro VM, Nock MK, et al. Validation of an Electronic Health Record–Based Suicide Risk Prediction Modeling Approach Across Multiple Health Care Systems. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201262. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1262
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Key Points

Question: Can a process for training machine-learning algorithms based on electronic health records identify individuals at increased risk of suicide attempts across independent health care systems?

The Effectiveness of a Guided Internet-Based Tool for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Pregnancy (MamaKits Online): Randomized Controlled Trial

Citation
Heller HM, Hoogendoorn AW, Honig A, Broekman BF, van Straten A. The Effectiveness of a Guided Internet-Based Tool for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Pregnancy (MamaKits Online): Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res 2020;22(3):e15172
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Conclusions: Our study did show a significant reduction in affective symptoms in both groups, but the differences in reduction of affective symptoms between the intervention and control groups were not significant. There were also no differences in perinatal child outcomes.

Association of Opioid Use with Pain and Satisfaction after Dental Extraction

Citation
Nalliah, R. P., Sloss, K. R., & Kenney, B. C. (2020). Association of opioid use with pain and satisfaction after dental extraction. JAMA Network Open, 3(3). doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.0901
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Opioid prescriptions increased by 68% from 2010 to 2016 for new dental procedures among people not previously prescribed opioids. This study sheds light on the potential of unnecessary prescribing of opioids for dental procedures especially for people never prescribed opioids prior to their procedure.

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Violations of a Campus Smoke-Free Policy: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Undergraduate Students on a University Campus in the USA

Citation
Ramachandran S, Bentley S, Casey E, et al Prevalence of and factors associated with violations of a campus smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate students on a university campus in the USA BMJ Open 2020;10:e030504. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030504
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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking behaviour on campus and to identify the key factors that influence adherence to a campus smoke-free policy.

Systemic Review of Systemic Reviews Finds Numerous and Diverse Harms with Marijuana Use

Citation
Campeny, E., Lopez-Pelayo, H., Niett, D., Blithikioti, C., Oliveras, C., ... Gual, A. (2020). The blind men and the elephant: Systematic review of systematic reviews of cannabis use related health harms. European Neuropsycholopharmacology. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.02.003
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Researchers attempted to assess the global harms associated with marijuana use and potentially define risky marijuana use in a systematic review of systematic reviews. Forty-four systematic reviews including over 1053 diverse studies were analyzed, with an average AMSTAR 2 rating of 60.1%, indicating low to moderate quality. Harm was divided into the following three categories: mental health harm, somatic harm, and physical harm.

The COVID-19 Outbreak and Psychiatric Hospitals in China: Managing Challenges through Mental Health Service Reform

Citation
Xiang, Y. T., Zhao, Y. J., Liu, Z. H., Li, X. H., Zhao, N., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: managing challenges through mental health service reform. Int J Biol Sci, 16(10), 1741-1744.
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Abstract

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use Among Transgender Girls and Young Women

Citation
Restar AJ, Jin H, Ogunbajo A, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use Among Transgender Girls and Young Women. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201015. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1015
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Abstract

Importance: Nonmedical prescription opioid use is a pressing public health issue in the United States.

Estimated Worldwide Mortality Attributed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure, 1990-2016

Citation
Yousuf H, Hofstra M, Tijssen J, et al. Estimated Worldwide Mortality Attributed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure, 1990-2016. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201177. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1177
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Abstract

Importance: The World Health Organization estimates that the 1 billion individuals who smoke worldwide contribute to the 880 000 secondhand smoke (SHS)–related deaths among individuals who do not smoke each year.

Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children After Prenatal Exposure to Medications for Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Nelson LF, Yocum VK, Patel KD, Qeadan F, Hsi A, Weitzen S. Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children After Prenatal Exposure to Medications for Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201195. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1195
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Abstract

Importance: The number of children with prenatal opioid exposure to medication for addiction treatment (MAT) with methadone and buprenorphine for maternal opioid use disorder is increasing, but the associations of this exposure with cognitive outcomes are not well understood.

Codependency on Drug Abusers' Mothers

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Desirée Molina, A. Villalobos. José Félix Ribas Foundation, Venezuela

Codependency has been described as a significant health risk behavior, particularly for women, because codependent women are often involved in abusive and harmful relationships. Identification of individuals who are codependent is an important step in assisting them to engage in therapy and become a healthy support for drug abusers in treatment.

Role of Parenting Styles in Internalizing, Externalizing, and Adjustment Problems in Children

Citation
Moreno Méndez, J., Espada Sánchez, J., & Gómez Becerra, M. (2020). Role of parenting styles in internalizing, externalizing, and adjustment problems in children.Salud Mental, 43(2), 73-84. doi:https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2020.011

Abstract

Introduction. Different studies have reported the relationship of parenting styles with adjustment problems in children. However, it has not been specified which aspects of parenting styles play a central role in the manifestation of such psychological problems. 

Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Multiple Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged Men and Women

Citation
Thomas, K., Nilsson, E., Festin, K., Henriksson, P., Lowén, M., Löf, M., & Kristenson, M. (2020). Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Multiple Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged Men and Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 1239.
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Abstract

 

First Alcohol Treatment Institutions in Today's Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

Citation
Šejvl, J., Gavurová, B., Barták, M., Mašlániová, M., & Miovský, M. (2019). First alcohol treatment institutions in today's Czech Republic and Slovak Republic. Central European Journal of Public Health, 27(Supplement), S55-S65.

Abstract

Objective:

Drawing on qualitative analysis of selected historical documents, the paper seeks to provide a definition of the general characteristics of the first institutional alcohol treatment facilities in today's Czech Republic and Slovakia, taking into account the historical context of the first half of the 20th century.

Association of Alcohol Screening Scores With Adverse Mental Health Conditions and Substance Use Among US Adults

Citation
Khan MR, Young KE, Caniglia EC, et al. Association of Alcohol Screening Scores With Adverse Mental Health Conditions and Substance Use Among US Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e200895. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.0895
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Abstract

Importance: Alcohol screening may be associated with health outcomes that cluster with alcohol use (ie, alcohol-clustering conditions), including depression, anxiety, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drugs.

Project Khanya: A Randomized, Hybrid Effectiveness-Implementation Trial of a Peer-Delivered Behavioral Intervention for ART Adherence and Substance Use in Cape Town, South Africa

Citation
Magidson, J.F., Joska, J.A., Myers, B. et al. Project Khanya: a randomized, hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of a peer-delivered behavioral intervention for ART adherence and substance use in Cape Town, South Africa. Implement Sci Commun 1, 23 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43058-020-00004-w
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Abstract

Background

Substance use is prevalent in South Africa and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes, yet, it is largely unaddressed in HIV care. Implementing an evidence-based, task-shared intervention for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and substance use integrated into HIV care may be a feasible and effective way to improve HIV treatment outcomes and reduce substance use in this population.

Long Term Change among People who Inject Drugs

Citation
Dong, H., Hayashi, K., Singer, J., Milloy, M. J., DeBeck, K., Wood, E., & Kerr, T. (2019). Trajectories of injection drug use among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada, 1996-2017: Growth mixture modeling using data from prospective cohort studies. Addiction, 114(12), 2173-2186. doi: 10.1111/add.14756
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The link is to Recovery Research Institute's summary of the findings from this long term longitudinal study of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada. It reports that there are five different trajectories for people who inject drugs. Twenty-four percent of study participants died in the ten year study time frame.

Outreach to People Who Survive Opioid Overdose

Citation
Langabeer, J., Champagne-Langabeer, T., Luber, S. D., Prater, S. J., Stotts, A., Kirages, K., ... & Chambers, K. A. (2020). Outreach to people who survive opioid overdose: Linkage and retention in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 111, 11-15.

Often it takes a critical moment, such as when someone survives an overdose, to motivate behavioural change.

It is particularly important that at these times people have access to the appropriate treatment.

Trajectories of psychological distress during recovery from polysubstance use disorder

Citation
Aleksander H. Erga, Audhild Hønsi, Liss Gøril Anda-Ågotnes, Sverre Nesvåg, Morten Hesse & Egon Hagen (2020) Trajectories of psychological distress during recovery from polysubstance use disorder, Addiction Research & Theory, DOI: 10.1080/16066359.2020.1730822
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Abstract
Introduction: Polysubstance use is a prevalent substance use pattern with adverse effects on psychological distress and diminished treatment outcomes. Although polysubstance use often dominates clinical practice, the trajectories of substance use and psychological distress in the initial phase of treatment have been subject to few empirical investigations.

Importance of a Standard Unit Dose for Cannabis Research

Citation
Volkow, N. D., & Weiss, S. R. (2020). Importance of a standard unit dose for cannabis research. Addiction.
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A standardized measure for 9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products is necessary to advance research both on the adverse effects of cannabis (e.g. risks for brain development, mental illness and addiction) and on the drug's potential medical uses.

Developmental Nicotine Exposure Engenders Intergenerational Downregulation and Aberrant Posttranslational Modification of Cardinal Epigenetic Factors in the Frontal Cortices, Striata, and Hippocampi of Adolescent Mice

Citation
Buck, J.M., O’Neill, H.C. & Stitzel, J.A. Developmental nicotine exposure engenders intergenerational downregulation and aberrant posttranslational modification of cardinal epigenetic factors in the frontal cortices, striata, and hippocampi of adolescent mice. Epigenetics & Chromatin 13, 13 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13072-020-00332-0
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Abstract

Background

Maternal smoking of traditional or electronic cigarettes during pregnancy, which constitutes developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), heightens the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia in children.

Reward Circuitry and Motivational Deficits in Social Anxiety Disorder: What Can Be Learned From Mouse Models?

Citation
Carlton, C. N., Sullivan-Toole, H., Ghane, M., & Richey, J. A. (2020). Reward Circuitry and Motivational Deficits in Social Anxiety Disorder: What Can be Learned from Mouse Models?. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 154.
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and serious psychiatric condition that typically emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood if left untreated. Prevailing interventions focus on modulating threat and arousal systems but produce only modest rates of remission. This gap in efficacy suggests that most mainstream treatment concepts do not sufficiently target core processes involved in the onset and maintenance of SAD.