Research

Sex and Gender Effects in Recovery From Alcohol Use Disorder

Citation
Alcohol Research. 2020;40(3):03. https://doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v40.3.03
Publication Date

The current article provides a summary of biopsychosocial gender differences in alcohol use disorder (AUD), then reviews existing literature on gender differences in treatment access, retention, outcomes, and longer-term recovery. Among psychotherapies for AUD, there is support for the efficacy of providing female-specific treatment and for female-only treatment settings, but only when female-specific treatment is included.

Changes in Cigarette Consumption With Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes Among Smokers With Psychiatric Conditions or Socioeconomic Disadvantage 3 Randomized Clinical Trials

Citation
Higgins ST, Tidey JW, Sigmon SC, et al. Changes in Cigarette Consumption With Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes Among Smokers With Psychiatric Conditions or Socioeconomic Disadvantage: 3 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2019311. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19311
Publication Date

Abstract

Importance: This study is part of a programmatic effort evaluating the effects of reducing nicotine content of cigarettes to minimally addictive levels.

Objective: To examine whether very low-nicotine-content (VLNC) cigarettes decrease smoking rates and dependence severity among smokers with psychiatric disorders or socioeconomic disadvantage.

Modeling Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Opioid-Related Morbidity and Mortality in U.S.

Citation
Ballreich J, Mansour O, Hu E, et al. Modeling Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Opioid-Related Morbidity and Mortality in the US. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(11):e2023677. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.23677
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A decision analytic dynamic Markov model on the US population aged 12 years or older was used to project the number of fatal overdoses caused by any opioid between 2020 – 2029 and project the number of deaths that can be averted by prescribing restrictions, naloxone distribution, and expansion of MAT interventions.

The Epigenetic Secrets Behind Dopamine, Drug Addiction and Depression

Citation
Lepack AE, Werner CT, Stewart AF, Fulton SL, Zhong P, Farrelly LA, Smith ACW, Ramakrishnan A, Lyu Y, Bastle RM, Martin JA, Mitra S, O'Connor RM, Wang ZJ, Molina H, Turecki G, Shen L, Yan Z, Calipari ES, Dietz DM, Kenny PJ, Maze I. Dopaminylation of histone H3 in ventral tegmental area regulates cocaine seeking. Science. 2020 Apr 10;368(6487):197-201. doi: 10.1126/science.aaw8806. PMID: 32273471; PMCID: PMC7228137. Farrelly LA, Thompson RE, Zhao S, Lepack AE, Lyu Y, Bhanu NV, Zhang B, Loh YE, Ramakrishnan A, Vadodaria KC, Heard KJ, Erikson G, Nakadai T, Bastle RM, Lukasak BJ, Zebroski H 3rd, Alenina N, Bader M, Berton O, Roeder RG, Molina H, Gage FH, Shen L, Garcia BA, Li H, Muir TW, Maze I. Histone serotonylation is a permissive modification that enhances TFIID binding to H3K4me3. Nature. 2019 Mar;567(7749):535-539. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1024-7. Epub 2019 Mar 13. PMID: 30867594; PMCID: PMC6557285.
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This article explains new research on the epigentics of addiction in layman's terms. 

Educational Needs in the Sphere of Addictology in Georgia

Citation
Kirtadze, I., Otiashvili, D., & Javakhishvili, D. J. (2011). Educational Needs in the Sphere of Addictology in Georgia.

Aim

The purpose of the report provided here is to assess drug education needs in Georgia and, specifically, to reveal the gaps on the different levels of the system of education (public schools, universities’ relevant Bachelor’s and Master’s courses, the system of lifelong education for teachers, school psychologists, addictologists, journalists, etc.), as well as in the service-providing organisations.

Substance Use Disorders and COVID-19: Multi-Faceted Problems Which Require Multi-Pronged Solutions

Citation
Jemberie WB, Stewart Williams J, Eriksson M, Grönlund A-S, Ng N, Blom Nilsson M, Padyab M, Priest KC, Sandlund M, Snellman F, McCarty D and Lundgren LM (2020) Substance Use Disorders and COVID-19: Multi-Faceted Problems Which Require Multi-Pronged Solutions. Front. Psychiatry 11:714. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00714
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Persistent use of alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, opioids and stimulants increase risk of substance use disorders (SUDs).  SUDs are increasingly viewed as biopsychosocial disorders with multiple risk factors interacting at individual and contextual levels with multiple health consequences.

Effect of 2 Integrated Interventions on Alcohol Abstinence and Viral Suppression among Vietnamese Adults with Hazardous Alcohol Use and HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Citation
Go VF, Hutton HE, Ha TV, et al. Effect of 2 Integrated Interventions on Alcohol Abstinence and Viral Suppression Among Vietnamese Adults With Hazardous Alcohol Use and HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2017115. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17115
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Abstract

Importance  Hazardous and heavy alcohol use is common among people living with HIV and may decrease antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but limited data exist from randomized clinical trials about the effects of interventions on viral load.

Objective  To compare the efficacy of 2 scalable ART clinic–based interventions on alcohol use and viral suppression.

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on substance use: Implications for prevention and treatment

Citation
Ornell, F., Moura, H. F., Scherer, J. N., Pechansky, F., Kessler, F., & von Diemen, L. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on substance use: implications for prevention and treatment. Psychiatry research, 113096. Chicago

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought major challenges to healthcare systems and public health policies globally, as it requires novel treatment and prevention strategies to adapt for the impact of the pandemic. Individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) are at risk population for contamination due to multiple factors—attributable to their clinical, psychological and psychosocial conditions.

Smoke-free Home Intervention in Scotland

Citation
Turner, S., Mackay, D., Dick, S., Semple, S., & Pell, J. P. (2020). Associations between a smoke-free homes intervention and childhood admissions to hospital in Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis of whole-population data. The Lancet Public Health, 5(9), e493-e500.

When an individual smokes a cigarette (or roll-up, pipe or cigar), most of the smoke doesn't go into their lungs, it goes into the air around them where anyone nearby can breathe it in. This is known as second-hand smoke.

Infants and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative impact of smoke.

Experiences of Clinicians Transitioning to Telemedicine

Citation
Uscher-Pines, L., Sousa, J., Raja, P., Mehrotra, A., Barnett, M., & Huskamp, H. A. (2020). Treatment of opioid use disorder during COVID-19: Experiences of clinicians transitioning to telemedicine. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 108124. Chicago

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many practitioners to shift their practice online, using telemedicine to treat Opioid Use Disorder. This has allowed for the continuity of essential care whilst adhering to the social distancing guidelines, which protect people from the spread of infection.

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Özgen H, Spijkerman R, Noack M, Holtmann M, Schellekens A, S, A, van de Glind G, Banaschewski T, Barta C, Begeman A, Casas M, Crunelle C, L, Daigre Blanco C, Dalsgaard S, Demetrovics Z, den Boer J, Dom G, Eapen V, Faraone S, V, Franck J, González R, A, Grau-López L, Groenman A, P, Hemphälä M, Icick R, Johnson B, Kaess M, Kapitány-Fövény M, Kasinathan J, G, Kaye S, S, Kiefer F, Konstenius M, Levin F, R, Luderer M, Martinotti G, Matthys F, I, A, Meszaros G, Moggi F, Munasur-Naidoo A, P, Post M, Rabinovitz S, Ramos-Quiroga J, A, Sala R, Shafi A, Slobodin O, Staal W, G, Thomasius R, Truter I, van Kernebeek M, W, Velez-Pastrana M, C, Vollstädt-Klein S, Vorspan F, Young J, T, Yule A, van den Brink W, Hendriks V: International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder. Eur Addict Res 2020;26:223-232. doi: 10.1159/000508385
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This international consensus statement can be used by clinicians and patients together in a shared decision-making process to select the best interventions and to reach optimal outcomes in adolescent patients with concurrent ADHD and SUD.

A Review of the Substance Use Disorder Treatment and Prevention Systems in Kenya

Citation
Jaguga, F., Kwobah, E. A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 47 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00291-5
Publication Date

Researchers predict that harm from substance use and rates of substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa will increase significantly in the next 30 years.

In order to have a well-functioning health system that works in harmony, the World Health Organization (WHO)describes the need for the following features:

The Prevalence and Context of Alcohol Use among Youth Living in Uganda

Citation
Swahn, M. H., Culbreth, R., Salazar, L. F., Tumwesigye, N. M., Jernigan, D. H., Kasirye, R., & Obot, I. S. (2020). The Prevalence and Context of Alcohol Use, Problem Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harm among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2451.
Publication Date

There is extensive research highlighting the negative short term and long term impact of alcohol use.

Although there is a vast amount of research investigating alcohol use among youth in high-income countries; there is a lack of research on alcohol use among youth in low-income countries

Uganda has very high alcohol consumption rates.

Perception of quality of life and health status in outpatient treatment for problematic use of psychoactive substances

Citation
Percepción de calidad de vida y estado de salud en el tratamiento ambulatorio por consumo problemático de sustancias psicoactivas
Publication Date

This study indemnifies the perception of quality of life and health status in outpatient treatment for problematic consumption of psychoactive substances, in an organization of the Civil Society of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Two predefined questionnaires were applied, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Questionnaire Satisfaction Short Form and SF36 to measure the quality of life and health status perceived by the users of the device.

Tobacco Use among Older Adults in Egypt

Citation
Abdel-Hady, D., & El-Gilany, A. H. (2020). Tobacco use and its associated factors among older people: a community-based study in Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 26(1), 68-74.

Tobacco use is the primary risk factor common to the four main groups of non-communicable diseases— cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and diabetes (NCD Alliance).

Figures gathered from the Egypt Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009) show that Egypt is listed as one of the top ten per capita consumers of tobacco. 

Beer Drinking and Tax Levy in Botswana

Citation
Sebeelo, T. B. (2020). Beer drinking, resistance and the politics of alcohol tax levy in Botswana. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. https://doi.org/10.1177/1455072520936811

According to the WHO, harmful alcohol use is one of the leading risk factors for the global burden of disease.

In response to concerning trends, governments around the world have intervened in the market for alcohol by levying specific taxes.  

Prices, Alcohol Use Initiation and Heavy Episodic Drinking among Chilean Youth

Citation
Paraje, G. R., Guindon, G. E., and Chaloupka, F. J. (2020) Prices, alcohol use initiation and heavy episodic drinking among Chilean youth. Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15167.

Research suggests that early initiation of alcohol use is a risk factor for multiple problems later in life, including heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorders.

Prevention scientists are particularly interested in understanding the reasons why young people experiment with alcohol and measures that can be introduced to help reduce alcohol use amongst this age group.

What Influences Pre-teens to Drink Alcohol?

Citation
Kelly, Y., Goisis, A., Sacker, A. et al. What influences 11-year-olds to drink? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. BMC Public Health 16, 169 (2016) doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2847-x

Research has shown there to be a link between heavy drinking in youth and increased risky behaviour and reduced educational effectiveness.

In order to understand the factors that are associated with binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood, it is important to understand the reasons why a young person has their initial drink.

Incarceration Impacts Cognitive Performance, and Prisoner Status Matters

Citation
Michael O. Ezenwa, Charles T. Orjiakor & Desmond U. Onu (2020) Incarceration impacts cognitive performance, and prisoner status matters, The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 31:4, 613-622, DOI: 10.1080/14789949.2020.1784249

Abstract

Globally, incarceration is understood to impoverish the wellbeing of prisoners, but evidence for its impact on cognitive performance is less popular.

Eye tracking of smoking-related stimuli in tobacco use disorder: A proof-of-concept study combining attention bias modification with alpha-transcranial alternating current stimulation

Citation
Mondino, M., Lenglos, C., Cinti, A., Renauld, E., & Fecteau, S. (2020). Eye tracking of smoking-related stimuli in tobacco use disorder: A proof-of-concept study combining attention bias modification with alpha-transcranial alternating current stimulation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108152.
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Tobacco use disorder (TUD) is characterized by the presence of an attentional bias (AB) towards smoking-related stimuli.

Geographic Proximity to Buprenorphine Treatment Providers in the U.S.

Citation
Langabeer, J., Stotts, A. L., Cortez, A., Tortolero, G., & Champagne-Langabeer, T. (2020). Geographic proximity to buprenorphine treatment providers in the US. Drug and alcohol dependence, 108131.

Abstract

Objective

To combat the growing opioid epidemic, people who use drugs need access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) as part of comprehensive treatment. Despite progress, treatment gaps remain. Our objective was to use a geospatial buffering model to estimate treatment access for buprenorphine providers nationally.

 

Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use

Citation
Vink, J. M., Veul, L., Abdellaoui, A., Hottenga, J. J., Boomsma, D. I., & Verweij, K. J. (2020). Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108102.

Abstract

Background

The use of illicit substances is correlated, meaning that individuals who use one illicit substance are more likely to also use another illicit substance. This association could (partly) be explained by overlapping genetic factors. Genetic overlap may indicate a common underlying genetic predisposition, or can be the result of a causal association.

 

Illicit Drug Use and the Genetic Overlap with Cannabis Use

Citation
Pasman, J., Smit, D., Kingma, L., Vink, J., Treur, J., & Verweij, K. (2020, July 02). Causal relationships between substance use and insomnia. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871620303161

Abstract

Background

Poor sleep quality and insomnia have been associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis, but it is unclear if there is a causal link. In this Mendelian Randomization (MR) study we examine if insomnia causes substance use and/or if substance use causes insomnia.

 

Substance Use Patterns and Health Profiles among US Adults who Use Opioids, Methamphetamine, or Both, 2015-2018

Citation
Shearer, R. D., Howell, B. A., Bart, G., & Winkelman, T. N. (2020). Substance use patterns and health profiles among US adults who use opioids, methamphetamine, or both, 2015-2018. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108162.
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Abstract

Background

Methamphetamine use, with and without opioids, has increased substantially, but little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, or health profiles of individuals who use methamphetamine.

A Review of the Public Sector Substance Use Disorder Treatment and Prevention Systems in Kenya

Citation
Jaguga, F., Kwobah, E. A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 47 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00291-5
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

The burden of substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa has been projected to increase by an estimated 130% by 2050. Despite this, little is known about the substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in the region.

Discussing Alcohol Use with the GP

Citation
Discussing alcohol use with the GP: a qualitative study Sandra Coste, Laetitia Gimenez, Aurélie Comes, Xavier Abdelnour, Julie Dupouy, Emile Escourrou BJGP Open 2020; 4 (2): bjgpopen20X101029. DOI: 10.3399/bjgpopen20X101029

A General Practitioner (GP) is often the first point of contact for people struggling with alcohol related issues. These doctors must be trained to detect problematic drinking as well as have the confidence and skills to have open conversations with patients. 

Feedback from patients who have received support from their GP helps inform guidance to having these conversations.

Longitudinal Evaluation of the Impact of Standardised Packaging and Minimum Excise Tax on Tobacco Sales and Industry Revenue in the UK

Citation
Hiscock R, Augustin NH, Gilmore AB, et alLongitudinal evaluation of the impact of standardised packaging and minimum excise tax on tobacco sales and industry revenue in the UKTobacco Control Published Online First: 12 July 2020. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055387
Publication Date
Abstract

Background Standardised packaging for factory-made cigarettes (FM) and roll-your-own tobacco (RYO), and a minimum excise tax (MET) were fully implemented in the UK in May 2017 following a 12-month transition period. This paper is the first to examine effects on tobacco sales volumes and company revenues.