Evaluation of performance-enhancing drugs seized by Israeli enforcement agencies 2012–2017: Implications for policy and regulatory change
Substance use continues to be a key public health concern in Africa. Despite this, there have been few reviews that have examined the current research on the subject. This study examines the existing research on the prevention of alcohol and substance use in Africa.
The specific objectives were to:
Identify drugs and substances used across Africa
Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used substances during adolescence and are typically initiated during this sensitive neurodevelopmental period.
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent literature focused on understanding how these substances affect the developing brain.
The effects of alcohol use include:
Substance use disorders are reoccurring chronic, often relapsing disease that affect the brain and should be treated within the public health arena similar to other diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. This understanding, however, does not easily find its way into public or social policy.
Cognitive reserve (CR) is the capability of an individual to cope with a brain pathology through compensatory mechanisms developed through cognitive stimulation by mental and physical activity. Recently, it has been suggested that CR has a protective role against the initiation of substance use, substance consumption patterns and cognitive decline and can improve responses to treatment.
Social Determinants & Substance Use: A Perspective Beyond the Policy 'Silo' Pragmatics - This paper (synoptic version, peer reviewed and published in Journal of Global Drug Policy & Practice) is a review of and research into the social determinants in a 'First World' setting, not relating to a developing world context.
This is a refreshed version of the 2017 paper.
Objective: To determine the mediated effect of sensation-seeking on the relationship between attitudes to alcohol consumption and consumption in a sample of adolescents from Ecuador. Method: Descriptive predictive and mediation study with the use of the Scale of Attitudes to consumption, the Brief Questionnaire of Search for Sensations and the Test of Identification of Disorders Related to Alcohol Consumption.
This qualitative study was commissioned by Alcohol Change UK in Wales to explore how and why alcohol and self-harm are related, and how alcohol, self-harm, and related services, are experienced and understood.
The risk of an individual overdosing is influenced by a range of, often overlapping circumstances. Factors such as incarceration, mental and physical health conditions, and the treatments prescribed for these conditions can all affect the risk of overdose.
This study, published in The Lancet Public Health, aimed to:
Biotechnological treatment, including addiction treatment, is the way of the future. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies praise depot injections, agonist/antagonist implants, deep brain stimulation, and hapten conjugate vaccines as medicine's greatest chance for reducing illegal usage, reducing the danger of overdose and severe withdrawal, and preventing drug diversion to criminal markets.
Tobacco smoking is the greatest cause of sickness and early death worldwide, with 8 million people dying each year from a smoking-related condition. The use of pharmaceutical or behavioural assistance improves smokers' chances of quitting; nonetheless, the majority of smoking cessation efforts are unassisted.
Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol is a policy whereby a set price is introduced, below which a fixed volume of alcohol cannot be sold to the public. Several countries, including Scotland, Canada, certain states of the USA, Russia, Moldova, Ukraine and Uzbekistan, have adopted different forms of MUP.
In response to the concerning numbers of opioid-related deaths in the US, there has been a recent focus on opioid prescribing trends, which has shown an increase in opioid tapering among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy. However, there has also been an increase in opioid-related mortality.
COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified a pandemic on March 11, 2020, with early reports of the disease occurring in the Middle East and North African (MENA) area. On January 2021, the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (WHO-EMRO) reported 5,566,708 confirmed cases with 131,886 fatalities to date.
The goal of this study was to analyze the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption (frequency of consumption, average daily consumption, and risky consumption) before and during confinement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the adult population and based on gender.
This special issue addresses a rapidly growing area of research with a pressing public health need, the social structure of opioid use.
Specifically, this issue compiles original articles that apply theoretical and empirical frameworks to better understand structural conditions that form opioid use patterns.
Special Issue: Optimizing the Implementation and Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions through Motivational Interviewing
Issue editors: Catherine P. Bradshaw and Elise T Pas.
Objective: To translate and adapt the human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale into Urdu language,
and to determine its psychometric properties.
Interpersonal and technical skills are required for the care of people living with substance use disorders. Considering the applicability and usability of online courses as continuing professional education initiatives, this study aimed to describe the content design process of an introductory-level healthcare-centered Massive Open Online Course (MOOC).
The high dropout rate (75%) in opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment among women and racial/ethnic minorities in the United States necessitates a better knowledge of the factors that contribute to treatment success. While therapy and medication for OUD are considered the top standard of care in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, many people with OUD receive just counseling or methadone-only therapies.
In response to the rising efficacy of the illicit opioid drug supply and often observed delays in access to follow-up therapy, emergency departments (EDs) occasionally utilize a high-dose buprenorphine induction method for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD). The objective of this study is to investigate the safety and tolerability of high-dose (>12 mg) buprenorphine induction for patients with OUD presenting to an ED.
During the past decade, heated aerosolized nicotine delivery systems (HANDS) —mainly e-cigarettes—have surpassed nicotine replacement therapy as the most utilized aids for stopping smoking in England.
The World Health Organization identifies alcohol as a cause of several neoplasias of the oropharynx cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, larynx, liver, or female breast. We review ethanol’s nonoxidative and oxidative metabolism and one-carbon metabolism that encompasses both redox and transfer reactions that influence crucial cell proliferation machinery.
Brief treatment (BT) or regular outpatient alcohol use or substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a key element of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model. It can be an effective, short-term, and low-cost treatment option for many people who misuse alcohol and drugs. Nevertheless, inconsistent BT implementation often costs similar to regular outpatient care.
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist nations in reducing the demand and supply of tobacco. In 2020, 182 nations joined the FCTC, approving to implement the recommended tobacco control measures.