Incarceration Impacts Cognitive Performance, and Prisoner Status Matters
Abstract Globally, incarceration is understood to impoverish the wellbeing of prisoners, but evidence for its impact on cognitive performance is less popular. As most evidence
Tobacco use disorder (TUD) is characterized by the presence of an attentional bias (AB) towards smoking-related stimuli.
To combat the growing opioid epidemic, people who use drugs need access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) as part of comprehensive treatment. Despite progress, treatment gaps remain. Our objective was to use a geospatial buffering model to estimate treatment access for buprenorphine providers nationally.
The use of illicit substances is correlated, meaning that individuals who use one illicit substance are more likely to also use another illicit substance. This association could (partly) be explained by overlapping genetic factors. Genetic overlap may indicate a common underlying genetic predisposition, or can be the result of a causal association.
Poor sleep quality and insomnia have been associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis, but it is unclear if there is a causal link. In this Mendelian Randomization (MR) study we examine if insomnia causes substance use and/or if substance use causes insomnia.
Methamphetamine use, with and without opioids, has increased substantially, but little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, or health profiles of individuals who use methamphetamine.
The burden of substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa has been projected to increase by an estimated 130% by 2050. Despite this, little is known about the substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in the region.
A General Practitioner (GP) is often the first point of contact for people struggling with alcohol related issues. These doctors must be trained to detect problematic drinking as well as have the confidence and skills to have open conversations with patients.
Feedback from patients who have received support from their GP helps inform guidance to having these conversations.
Background Standardised packaging for factory-made cigarettes (FM) and roll-your-own tobacco (RYO), and a minimum excise tax (MET) were fully implemented in the UK in May 2017 following a 12-month transition period. This paper is the first to examine effects on tobacco sales volumes and company revenues.
The international Life In Recovery (LiR) surveys have provided an important message to the public and policy makers about the reality of change from addiction to recovery, consistently demonstrating both that there are marked gains across a range of life domains and that the longer the person is in recovery the better their recovery strengths and achievements.
Smoking rates among people with a mental health condition are significantly higher than in the general population.
Research has also found that individuals with mental health issues who smoke are more likely to smoke heavily and extract more nicotine from each cigarette compared to people who smoke who do not have a mental health condition.
In March 2012 the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) was approved, resulting in the commissioning responsibility of specialist drug and alcohol service transferring from the National Health Service (NHS) to local authorities in England.
This shift was designed to allow greater flexibility and freedom to respond to local need.
Importance: An important consequence of cannabis legalization is the potential increase in the number of cannabis-impaired drivers on roads, which may result in higher rates of traffic-related injuries and fatalities. To date, limited information about the effects of recreational cannabis laws (RCLs) on traffic fatalities is available.
Already moderate alcohol consumption has detrimental long-term effects on brain function. However, how alcohol produces its potent addictive effects despite being a weak reinforcer is a poorly understood conundrum that likely hampers the development of successful interventions to limit heavy drinking.
Given the high co-occurrence between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and mental health conditions (MHCs), and the increased morbidity associated with the presence of co-occurring disorders, it is important that co-occurring disorders be identified and both disorders addressed in integrated treatment.
Globally, more than 2 million new cases of breast cancer are reported annually. The United States alone has more than 496,000 new cases every year. The worldwide prevalence is approximately 6.8 million cases. Although many risk factors for breast cancer are not modifiable, understanding the role of the factors that can be altered is critical. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable factor.
The interrelated epidemics of opioid use disorder (OUD) and HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been identified as one of the most pressing syndemics facing the United States today.
As part of the China National Health Survey, the objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, patterns, and influencing factors of smoking, and understand reasons for smoking cessation among adults in Hebei Province, central China. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 6,552 adults (2,594 males) aged 20–80 were selected in 2017.
Mental health problems are a leading cause of disability in adolescents worldwide. Problem solving is a well-tested mental health intervention in many populations. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a brief, transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention for common adolescent mental health problems when delivered by non-specialist school counsellors in New Delhi, India.
Alcohol is one of the leading risk factors for global disease burden and overconsumption leads to a wide variety of negative consequences in everyday life. Digital interventions have shown small positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use. Specific research on smartphone apps is sparse and the few studies published indicate effects ranging from negative or null to small or moderate.
Alcohol withdrawal can be uncomfortable and occasionally life threatening. Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal is an essential component of alcohol dependence. Benzodiazepines (BZDs), nonsedating anticonvulsants and antipsychotics are commonly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
Aim: The aim was to map and describe the university-based addiction studies programs in Africa, as part of continuing international research.
Methods: The study was conducted in 2016–2017. The first phase was based on Google and literature search of academic programs through pre-defined keywords. The second phase consisted of an in-depth analysis of characteristics of the identified programs.
Retention in substance use treatment is one of the strongest predictors of improved outcomes among adolescents, making retention an important goal of treatment. We examined treatment providers’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to treatment retention among adolescents, and their views on contributors to racial/ethnic disparities in retention including ways to address disparities.
Socioeconomic status (SES) can be thought of as a measure of an individual's or family's social position relative to others that measures factors such as education, income, type of occupation and place of residence.
Research indicates that individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to experience alcohol-related harm compared to individuals from higher SES.
When Argentine families closed to meet the quarantine imposed by the coronavirus, memes emerged as the possibility of spying on what is happening inside. Images such as a row of green beer bottles lining a house and field, and a caption in yellow capital letters that warns: "Two more weeks of quarantine and end the median." Or an image of Morticia Addams, who watches holding a cup of tea in her hands, and asks, "How are you with isolation?
People who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) often face social stigma, discrimination, and other challenges not encountered by people who identify as heterosexual. They also face a greater risk of harassment and violence. As a result of these and other stressors, sexual minorities are at increased risk for various behavioural health issues.
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly had a major impact on the provision of physical healthcare in Ireland and worldwide. The mental health impact of this pandemic cannot be underestimated, particularly relating to patients suffering with addiction.
For persons with substance use disorders (SUDs), 12-step groups (TSGs) are the most available and used peer-based recovery resource, worldwide. However, disengagement is common, and attrition may partly be due to practices and procedures within these groups that are unacceptable to a portion of the population with SUDs.
This paper summarizes the development and evaluation of an assessment instrument for children ages 7–12. The CHILD CARRE measure is a semi-structured interview with 7 domains. Children from the USA and Argentina (N¼134) completed baseline and follow-up assessments. Substance use occurred at an average age of 8.
Submission to Parliamentary Inquiry:
Illicit drug demand is at a critical juncture particularly at a time where the Australian criminal drug manufacturing and distribution networks are well established, sophisticated and tremendously successful operations embedded within interrelated global systems.
Introduction: Continuous training and certification of primary health care professionals support the implementation of brief interventions to address drug use.
Objective: to validate the training materials of the "Universal Treatment Curriculum for Health Professionals" by evaluating knowledge, skills and attitudes.