Research

The Relationship Between Alcohol-related Hospital Admission and Specialist Alcohol Treatment Provision in England

Citation
Roberts, E., Hotopf, M., & Drummond, C. (2020). The relationship between alcohol-related hospital admission and specialist alcohol treatment provision across local authorities in England since passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-3. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.120

In March 2012 the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) was approved, resulting in the commissioning responsibility of specialist drug and alcohol service transferring from the National Health Service (NHS) to local authorities in England.

This shift was designed to allow greater flexibility and freedom to respond to local need.

Association of Recreational Cannabis Laws in Colorado and Washington State With Changes in Traffic Fatalities, 2005-2017

Citation
Santaella-Tenorio J, Wheeler-Martin K, DiMaggio CJ, et al. Association of Recreational Cannabis Laws in Colorado and Washington State With Changes in Traffic Fatalities, 2005-2017. JAMA Intern Med. Published online June 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1757
Publication Date

Abstract

Importance: An important consequence of cannabis legalization is the potential increase in the number of cannabis-impaired drivers on roads, which may result in higher rates of traffic-related injuries and fatalities. To date, limited information about the effects of recreational cannabis laws (RCLs) on traffic fatalities is available.

Chronic Alcohol Consumption Alters Extracellular Space Geometry and Transmitter Diffusion in the Brain

Citation
S. De Santis, A. Cosa-Linan, R. Garcia-Hernandez, L. Dmytrenko, L. Vargova, I. Vorisek, S. Stopponi, P. Bach, P. Kirsch, F. Kiefer, R. Ciccocioppo, E. Sykova, D. Moratal, W. H. Sommer, S. Canals, Chronic alcohol consumption alters extracellular space geometry and transmitter diffusion in the brain. Sci. Adv. 6, eaba0154 (2020).
Publication Date

Abstract

Already moderate alcohol consumption has detrimental long-term effects on brain function. However, how alcohol produces its potent addictive effects despite being a weak reinforcer is a poorly understood conundrum that likely hampers the development of successful interventions to limit heavy drinking.

Integrating Treatment for Co-Occurring Mental Health Conditions

Citation
Alcohol Res. 2019;40(1):07. https://doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v40.1.07.
Publication Date

Given the high co-occurrence between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and mental health conditions (MHCs), and the increased morbidity associated with the presence of co-occurring disorders, it is important that co-occurring disorders be identified and both disorders addressed in integrated treatment.

Alcohol’s Effects on Breast Cancer in Women

Citation
Alcohol Res. 2020;40(2):11. https://doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v40.2.11.
Publication Date

Globally, more than 2 million new cases of breast cancer are reported annually. The United States alone has more than 496,000 new cases every year. The worldwide prevalence is approximately 6.8 million cases. Although many risk factors for breast cancer are not modifiable, understanding the role of the factors that can be altered is critical. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable factor.

A Structural Competency Curriculum for Primary Care Providers to Address the Opioid Use Disorder, HIV, and Hepatitis C Syndemic

Citation
Bagchi, A. D. (2020). A Structural Competency Curriculum for Primary Care Providers to Address the Opioid Use Disorder, HIV, and Hepatitis C Syndemic. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 210.
Publication Date

The interrelated epidemics of opioid use disorder (OUD) and HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been identified as one of the most pressing syndemics facing the United States today.

Smoking Prevalence, Patterns, and Cessation Among Adults in Hebei Province, Central China: Implications From China National Health Survey (CNHS)

Citation
He, H., Pan, L., Cui, Z., Sun, J., Yu, C., Cao, Y., ... & Shan, G. (2020). Smoking Prevalence, Patterns, and Cessation Among Adults in Hebei Province, Central China: Implications From China National Health Survey (CNHS). Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 177.
Publication Date

As part of the China National Health Survey, the objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, patterns, and influencing factors of smoking, and understand reasons for smoking cessation among adults in Hebei Province, central China. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 6,552 adults (2,594 males) aged 20–80 were selected in 2017.

Effectiveness of a Brief Lay Counsellor-Delivered, Problem-Solving Intervention for Adolescent Mental Health Problems in Urban, Low-Income Schools in India: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Citation
Michelson, D., Malik, K., Parikh, R., Weiss, H., Doyle, A., Bhat, B., ... & Sharma, R. (2020). Effectiveness of a brief lay counsellor-delivered, problem-solving intervention for adolescent mental health problems: randomised controlled trial in urban, low-income schools in India. Lancet Child and Adolescent Health. ISSN 2352-4642 (Accepted). Lancet Child and Adolescent Health.
Publication Date

Summary

Background

Mental health problems are a leading cause of disability in adolescents worldwide. Problem solving is a well-tested mental health intervention in many populations. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a brief, transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention for common adolescent mental health problems when delivered by non-specialist school counsellors in New Delhi, India.

Reducing Risky Alcohol Use via Smartphone App Skills Training Among Adult Internet Help-Seekers: A Randomized Pilot Trial

Citation
Berman, A. H., Molander, O., Tahir, M., Törnblom, P., Gajecki, M., Sinadinovic, K., & Andersson, C. (2020). Reducing Risky Alcohol Use via Smartphone App Skills Training Among Adult Internet Help-Seekers: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11.
Publication Date

Alcohol is one of the leading risk factors for global disease burden and overconsumption leads to a wide variety of negative consequences in everyday life. Digital interventions have shown small positive effects in contributing to reductions in problematic use. Specific research on smartphone apps is sparse and the few studies published indicate effects ranging from negative or null to small or moderate.

Overview of University-based Academic Programs in Addiction Studies in Africa

Citation
Amalie Lososová, Kimberly A. Johnson, William Sinkele, Isidore Silas Obot & Michal Miovský (2020) Overview of university-based academic programs in addiction studies in Africa, Journal of Substance Use, DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2020.1779830
Publication Date

Abstract

Aim: The aim was to map and describe the university-based addiction studies programs in Africa, as part of continuing international research.

Methods: The study was conducted in 2016–2017. The first phase was based on Google and literature search of academic programs through pre-defined keywords. The second phase consisted of an in-depth analysis of characteristics of the identified programs.

Barriers, Facilitators, and Disparities in Retention for Adolescents in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: A Qualitative Study with Treatment Providers

Citation
Acevedo, A., Harvey, N., Kamanu, M. et al. Barriers, facilitators, and disparities in retention for adolescents in treatment for substance use disorders: a qualitative study with treatment providers. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 15, 42 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00284-4
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Retention in substance use treatment is one of the strongest predictors of improved outcomes among adolescents, making retention an important goal of treatment. We examined treatment providers’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to treatment retention among adolescents, and their views on contributors to racial/ethnic disparities in retention including ways to address disparities.

The Role of Alcohol use and Drinking Patterns in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mortality

Citation
Probst, C., Kilian, C., Sanchez, S., Lange, S., & Rehm, J. (2020). The role of alcohol use and drinking patterns in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: a systematic review. The Lancet Public Health, 5(6), e324-e332.

Socioeconomic status (SES) can be thought of as a measure of an individual's or family's social position relative to others that measures factors such as education, income, type of occupation and place of residence.

Research indicates that individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to experience alcohol-related harm compared to individuals from higher SES.

Alcohol consumption in quarantine

Citation
Según una encuesta de investigadores e investigadoras del Instituto Gino Germani, el 45 por ciento de las personas toma más alcohol que antes del aislamiento.
Publication Date

When Argentine families closed to meet the quarantine imposed by the coronavirus, memes emerged as the possibility of spying on what is happening inside. Images such as a row of green beer bottles lining a house and field, and a caption in yellow capital letters that warns: "Two more weeks of quarantine and end the median." Or an image of Morticia Addams, who watches holding a cup of tea in her hands, and asks, "How are you with isolation?

Substance Use and SUDs in LGBTQ* Populations

Citation
NIDA. (2017, September 5). Substance Use and SUDs in LGBTQ* Populations. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/substance-use-suds-in-lgbtq-populations on 2020, June 5
Publication Date

People who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual,  transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) often face social stigma, discrimination, and other challenges not encountered by people who identify as heterosexual. They also face a greater risk of harassment and violence. As a result of these and other stressors, sexual minorities are at increased risk for various behavioural health issues.

Addiction Psychiatry and COVID-19 – Impact on Patients and Service Provision

Citation
Columb, D., Hussain, R., & O’Gara, C. (2020). Addiction Psychiatry and COVID-19 – Impact on patients and service provision. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-15. doi:10.1017/ipm.2020.47
Publication Date

The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly had a major impact on the provision of physical healthcare in Ireland and worldwide. The mental health impact of this pandemic cannot be underestimated, particularly relating to patients suffering with addiction.

One Size Doesn’t Fit All: A Thematic Analysis of Interviews with People who Have Stopped Participating in Narcotics Anonymous in Norway

Citation
Vederhus, J., Høie, M. & Birkeland, B. One size doesn’t fit all: a thematic analysis of interviews with people who have stopped participating in Narcotics Anonymous in Norway. Addict Sci Clin Pract 15, 18 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-020-00191-w
Publication Date

Background

For persons with substance use disorders (SUDs), 12-step groups (TSGs) are the most available and used peer-based recovery resource, worldwide. However, disengagement is common, and attrition may partly be due to practices and procedures within these groups that are unacceptable to a portion of the population with SUDs.

The CHILD Intervention for Living Drug-Free Comprehensive Assessment of Risk, Resilience, and Experience (CHILD CARRE) Measure: Initial Findings

Citation
Hendrée E. Jones, Abdul Subor Momand, Brian Morales, Thom Browne, Nicolas Poliansky, Diego Ruiz, Mercedez Aranguren, Silvina Sanchez, Maria Valeria Fratto & Kevin E. O’Grady (2020): The CHILD Intervention for Living Drug-Free Comprehensive Assessment of Risk, Resilience, and Experience (CHILD CARRE) Measure: Initial Findings, Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, DOI: 10.1080/1067828X.2020.1766621
Publication Date

This paper summarizes the development and evaluation of an assessment instrument for children ages 7–12. The CHILD CARRE measure is a semi-structured interview with 7 domains. Children from the USA and Argentina (N¼134) completed baseline and follow-up assessments. Substance use occurred at an average age of 8.

Parliamentary Inquiry into Communication Campaigns Targeting Drug & Substance Abuse

Publication Date

Submission to Parliamentary Inquiry:

Illicit drug demand is at a critical juncture particularly at a time where the Australian criminal drug manufacturing and distribution networks are well established, sophisticated and tremendously successful operations embedded within interrelated global systems.

Professional knowledge, skills and attitudes for brief intervention in addictions

Citation
Chainé, S. M., Felix-Romero, V., Palafox, G. P., & Martínez, J. L. V. (2019). Conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes profesionales para la intervención breve en adicciones. Revista inteRnacional de investigación en adicciones, 5(2), 8-20.

Summary

Introduction: Continuous training and certification of primary health care professionals support the implementation of brief interventions to address drug use.

Objective: to validate the training materials of the "Universal Treatment Curriculum for Health Professionals" by evaluating knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Alcohol Use in Times of the COVID-19 Virus

Citation
Rehm, J., Kilian, C., Ferreira‐Borges, C., Jernigan, D., Monteiro, M., Parry, C.D.H., Sanchez, Z.M. and Manthey, J. (2020), Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy. Drug Alcohol Rev.. doi:10.1111/dar.13074

During this global lockdown, most people have had to make major lifestyle changes in order to adhere to guidelines outlined by their respective governments.

The situation has forced people's behaviour and choices to change, and it is important to monitor these adjustments from a public health perspective.

Inhibition of Cardiac Sodium Currents by Toluene Exposure

Citation
Cruz, S. L., Orta‐Salazar, G., Gauthereau, M. Y., Millan‐Perez Peña, L., & Salinas‐Stefanón, E. M. (2003). Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. British journal of pharmacology, 140(4), 653-660.

Abstract

Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

Prenatal Exposure to Cannabis and Maternal and Child Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation
Gunn JKL, Rosales CB, Center KE, et al. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2016;6:e009986. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009986

Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Data sources: 7 electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2014. Studies that investigated the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes were included.

Drinking Patterns and the Distribution of Alcohol-Related Harms in Ireland: Evidence for the Prevention Paradox

Citation
O’Dwyer, C., Mongan, D., Millar, S.R. et al. Drinking patterns and the distribution of alcohol-related harms in Ireland: evidence for the prevention paradox. BMC Public Health 19, 1323 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7666-4
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms.

Cannabinoid Exposure in Rat Adolescence Reprograms the Initial Behavioral, Molecular, and Epigenetic Response to Cocaine

Citation
Scherma, M., Qvist, J. S., Asok, A., Shao-shan, C. H., Masia, P., Deidda, M., ... & Kandel, E. R. (2020). Cannabinoid exposure in rat adolescence reprograms the initial behavioral, molecular, and epigenetic response to cocaine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Publication Date

Significance

The endocannabinoid system has a modulatory role in brain reward and cognitive processes. It has been hypothesized that repeated interference with endocannabinoid signaling (e.g., through abuse of cannabis or synthetic cannabinoids) can remodel the adolescent brain and make it respond differently to more addictive substances, such as cocaine.

Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption

Citation
Easey, K. E., Timpson, N. J., & Munafò, M. R. Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Previous research has suggested that intrauterine alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in offspring. However, few studies have investigated its association with offspring internalizing disorders in late adolescence.

Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study

Citation
Caspi A, Houts RM, Ambler A, et al. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e203221. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3221

Abstract

Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Videoconference-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan: One-Year Follow-Up of a Single-Arm Trial

Citation
Matsumoto K, Hamatani S, Nagai K, Sutoh C, Nakagawa A, Shimizu E. Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Videoconference-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan: One-Year Follow-Up of a Single-Arm Trial JMIR Ment Health 2020;7(4):e17157 DOI: 10.2196/17157
Publication Date

ABSTRACT

Background: Face-to-face individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and internet-based CBT (ICBT) without videoconferencing are known to have long-term effectiveness for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, videoconference-delivered CBT (VCBT) has not been investigated regarding its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria

Citation
Delroy CS, Ifeanyichukwu AO, Rachel BA (2020) Attitudes towards Cough Syrup Abuse: A Study of Adolescents in Southwest, Nigeria. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil 9:188. doi: 10.37532/jabtr.2020.9(1).188
Publication Date

One area of substance misuse among adolescents that is currently a problem, and has not been fully understood in the Nigerian context is the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse. Thus, to inform policy actions for reducing cough syrup abuse among Nigerian adolescents, this study explored the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse in two Southwest states of Nigeria, where substance abuse is rampant.

Tobacco use in adolescents and young people in Mexico who do not study and do not work

Citation
Bustos Gamiño, M., Villatoro Velázquez, J. A., Oliva Robles, N., López Brambila, M. Á., Fregoso Ito, D. A., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2015). Consumo de tabaco en adolescentes y jóvenes de México que no estudian y no trabajan. Revista internacional de investigación en adicciones, 1(1), 33-40.

Summary

Introduction: Lack of study or work opportunities increases the vulnerability of young people, who in the face of instability can start using tobacco or other addictive substances.

Objective: Analyze what tobacco use is like among groups of adolescents and young people who only study, only work, study and work, or do not study or work.