Research

The Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Alcohol and Drug Use in 195 Countries and Territories, 1990–2016

Citation
Degenhardt, Louisa & Charlson, Fiona & Ferrari, Alize & Santomauro, Damian & Erskine, Holly & Mantilla-Herrara, Ana & Whiteford, Harvey & Leung, Janni & Naghavi, Mohsen & Griswold, Max & Rehm, Jürgen & Hall, Wayne & Sartorius, Benn & Scott, James & Emil Vollset, Stein & Knudsen, Ann & Maria Haro, Josep & Patton, George & Kopec, Jacek & Vos, Theo. (2018). The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and drug use in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Psychiatry. 10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30337-7.
Publication Date

Summary

Background

Alcohol and drug use can have negative consequences on the health, economy, productivity, and social aspects of communities.

Neighbourhood Tobacco Supply and Individual Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

Citation
Clemens T, Dibben C, Pearce J, et al. Neighbourhood tobacco supply and individual maternal smoking during pregnancy: a fixed-effects longitudinal analysis using routine data. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 02 November 2018. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054422
Publication Date

Abstract

Background: Tobacco policy is increasingly focusing on the ‘tobacco endgame’ which commits to eradicating tobacco use (prevalence below 5%) within the next two decades. Strategies for achieving the endgame are likely to include addressing the supply of tobacco products, yet current evidence to support this approach is primarily cross-sectional.

Potential benefit of N-acetylcysteine for the management of cocaine base paste addiction

Citation
Betancur M., Carmen, & Vicente P., Benjamín. (2018). Potencial beneficio de la N-acetilcisteína para el manejo de la adicción a pasta base de cocaína. Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría, 56(3), 186-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0717-92272018000300186
Publication Date

Abstract

In Chile, the consumption of Cocaine Base Paste (CBP), a highly toxic and addictive substance, has become a serious medical and social problem in the poorest areas of the country. This substance is smoked and quickly provokes in the user the compulsive desire to continue using it, as well as to great difficulty in stopping consumption, mainlydue to the withdrawal symptoms that it generates in the user.

A Qualitative Exploration of School-Based Staff’s Experiences of Delivering an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in the High School Setting

Citation
G J McGeechan, E L Giles, S Scott, R McGovern, S Boniface, A Ramsay, H Sumnall, D Newbury-Birch, E Kaner, SIPS JR-HIGH Study Team; A qualitative exploration of school-based staff’s experiences of delivering an alcohol screening and brief intervention in the high school setting: findings from the SIPS JR-HIGH trial, Journal of Public Health, , fdy184, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy184
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Whilst underage drinking in the UK has been declining in recent years, prevalence is still higher than in most other Western European countries. Therefore, it is important to deliver effective interventions to reduce risk of harm.

Methods

Research on the Perception of Brazilian Parliamentarians on Drug Policy

Citation
Relatório Executivo da Pesquisa sobre percepção dos parlamentares brasileiros sobre política de drogas, 2016, Brasilia, Brasil
Publication Date

Seeking to qualify the public debate on drug policy and guide the actions of its members, the Brazilian Drug Policy Platform conducted a survey with the Federal Legislative Branch to map the opinions and perceptions of the congressmen on the current drug policy in the country.

The Key Drivers of Alcohol Supply and Demand

Citation
Jin, Z., Chang, H. H., Ponicki, W. R., Gaidus, A., Waller, L. A., Morrison, C. N., & Gruenewald, P. J. (2018). Longitudinal impacts of two causal drivers of alcohol demand on outlet concentrations within community settings: Population size and income effects. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 27, 21-28.
Publication Date

Alcohol outlets will open to sell alcohol and meet market demand.  The supply and demand are linked so that greater supply will induce yet greater demand.

Inactivation of HCV and HIV by Microwave: A Novel Approach for Prevention of Virus Transmission among People who Inject Drugs

Citation
Siddharta, A. et al. Inactivation of HCV and HIV by microwave: a novel approach for prevention of virus transmission among people who inject drugs. Sci. Rep. 6, 36619; doi: 10.1038/srep36619 (2016).
Publication Date

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmissions among people who inject drugs (PWID) continue to pose a challenging global health problem. Here, we aimed to analyse a universally applicable inactivation procedure, namely microwave irradiation, as a safe and effective method to reduce the risk of viral transmission.

How Alcohol Can Change How Memories Are Formed

Citation
Petruccelli, E., Feyder, M., Ledru, N., Jaques, Y., Anderson, E., & Kaun, K. R. (2018). Alcohol Activates Scabrous-Notch to Influence Associated Memories. Neuron.
Publication Date

Consuming alcohol often comes with negative side effects, such as nausea or headaches, however we have a tendency to remember the positive experience of drinking rather than the negative consequences.

The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Associates with NMDA Receptors to Produce Glutamatergic Hypofunction: Implications in Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Citation
Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Rodríguez-Muñoz, M., & Garzón, J. (2014). The cannabinoid receptor 1 associates with NMDA receptors to produce glutamatergic hypofunction: implications in psychosis and schizophrenia. Frontiers in pharmacology, 4, 169. doi:10.3389/fphar.2013.00169
Publication Date

The endocannabinoid system is widespread throughout the central nervous system and its type 1 receptor (CB1) plays a crucial role in preventing the neurotoxicity caused by activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Indeed, it is the activity of NMDARs themselves that provides the demands on the endogenous cannabinoids in order to control their calcium currents.

Sex Differences in Cannabis Use

Citation
Struik, D., Sanna, F., & Fattore, L. (2018). The modulating role of sex and anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones in cannabinoid sensitivity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 249.
Publication Date

Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and, with the rise of decriminalisation and legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use, it is expected this will increase even further.

Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Treatment for Opioid Use Disorders

Citation
Samples, H., Williams, A. R., Olfson, M., & Crystal, S. (2018). Risk factors for discontinuation of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorders in a multi-state sample of Medicaid enrollees. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 95, 9-17.
Publication Date

Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), and the associated risk of overdose and death, is becoming one of the most prevalent threats to health and social wellbeing in the United States.

The Mechanism Behind Alcohol Addiction

Citation
You, C., Savarese, A., Vandegrift, B. J., He, D., Pandey, S. C., Lasek, A. W., & Brodie, M. S. (2018). Ethanol acts on KCNK13 potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area to increase firing rate and modulate binge–like drinking. Neuropharmacology.
Publication Date
Neurons are highly specialised cells that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurons are highly specialised cells that receive, processes, and transmit information, within the br

Gene Therapy for Cocaine Addiction

Citation
Li, Y., Kong, Q., Yue, J., Gou, X., Xu, M., & Wu, X. (2018). Genome-edited skin epidermal stem cells protect mice from cocaine-seeking behaviour and cocaine overdose. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1.
Publication Date

Cocaine addiction is linked with uncontrollable drug seeking. Cues within the environment act as a constant reminder of the experience and can lead to relapse.

Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development

Citation
Morin, J., Afzali, M., Bourque, J., Stewart, S., Séguin, J., O'Leary-Barrett, M., & Conrod, P. (2018). A Population-Based Analysis of the Relationship Between Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Appiajp201818020202.
Publication Date

Both alcohol and cannabis misuse is linked with impaired mental functioning. Understanding the impact of substance use is particularly important when studying the developing brain.

E-cigarettes: An Unintended Illicit Drug Delivery System

Citation
Breitbarth, A. K., Morgan, J., & Jones, A. L. (2018). E-cigarettes-An unintended illicit drug delivery system. Drug and alcohol dependence.
Publication Date

Abstract

Since the introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in 2003, the technology has advanced allowing for greater user modifications, with users now able to control voltage, battery power, and constituents of the e-cigarette liquid.

Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas

Citation
Hernández, J. L. A., & Huesca, R. S. (2008). Migración femenina a Estados Unidos y consumo de drogas.
Publication Date

Abstract

Con el objetivo de conocer la experiencia migratoria a Estados Unidos de mujeres mexicanas, de identificar si cuentan con redes sociales cercanas de usuarias de drogas, así como valorar la presencia de consumo de dichas sustancias y si esto tiene alguna relación con la experiencia migratoria, se diseño una investigación de tipo exploratorio.

Smoking and Obesity in Chile’s Third National Health Survey

Citation
Bachelet VC, Lanas F. Smoking and obesity in Chile’s Third National Health Survey: light and shade. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e132. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.132
Publication Date

ABSTRACT

The Chilean Ministry of Health recently disclosed the first results of the 2016–2017 National Health Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Salud, ENS). The survey was cross-sectional and used a multistage stratified random sampling strategy resulting in a final sample of 6 233 persons ≥ 15 years old, with national, regional, and urban/rural representativeness.

Planning and Designing the Improving Addiction Care Team (IMPACT) for Hospitalized Adults with Substance Use Disorder

Citation
Englander, H., Weimer, M., Solotaroff, R., Nicolaidis, C., Chan, B., Velez, C., … Korthuis, P. T. (2017). Planning and Designing the Improving Addiction Care Team (IMPACT) for Hospitalized Adults with Substance Use Disorder. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 12(5), 339–342. http://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.2736
Publication Date

Abstract

People with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of hospitalization and readmission, long lengths of stay, and skyrocketing healthcare costs. Yet, models for improving care are extremely limited.

Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Problems among Refugees in Primary Health Care

Citation
Kane et al. BMC Medicine 2014, 12:228 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/228
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Population-based epidemiological research has established that refugees in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for a range of mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) problems.

Despite Falling Rates, Smoking-Related Lung Cancer Will Remain a Major Health Concern

Citation
Jeon, J., Holford, T. R., Levy, D. T., Feuer, E. J., Cao, P., Tam, J., ... & Meza, R. (2018). Smoking and Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States From 2015 to 2065: A Comparative Modeling Approach. Annals of internal medicine.
Publication Date

Tobacco control interventions introduced in the United States over the past 50 years have led to notable decrease in smoking and smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer.

Young Drivers Who Use Cannabis at Higher Risk of Collisions

Citation
Ronen, A., Chassidim, H. S., Gershon, P., Parmet, Y., Rabinovich, A., Bar-Hamburger, R., ... & Shinar, D. (2010). The effect of alcohol, THC and their combination on perceived effects, willingness to drive and performance of driving and non-driving tasks. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(6), 1855-1865.
Publication Date

It has been suggested that cannabis use increases risk of driving collisions through affecting braking and choice reaction time; causing impairment of lane position, disrupting head-way and dynamic tracking; distorting time perception; reducing divided and sustained attention; and increasing caution. <

Internet-Delivered Drug and Alcohol Treatment

Citation
Shulman, M., Campbell, A., Pavlicova, M., Hu, M. C., Aharonovich, E., & Nunes, E. V. (2018). Cognitive functioning and treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of internet‐delivered drug and alcohol treatment. The American journal on addictions, 27(6), 509-515.
Publication Date

Often individuals with substance use disorders show signs of impaired attention/ mental control, information processing or general cognitive functioning.

Drug Misuse and Hepatitis C Virus Infection Profiles for Three Generations of Patients Being Monitored for Prescription Drug Adherence

Publication Date

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945–1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers.

Investigating the Growing Trend of Non-Drinking among Young People

Citation
Ng Fat et al. BMC Public Health (2018) 18:1090 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5995-3
Publication Date

Abstract

Background

Non-drinking among young people has increased over the past decade in England, yet the underlying factor driving this change is unknown. Traditionally non-drinking has been found to be associated with lower socio-economic status and poorer health.