Research

Addictive behaviors and craving during the COVID-19 pandemic of people who have recovered from substance use disorder

Citation
Bonny-Noach, H., & Gold, D. (2020). Addictive behaviors and craving during the COVID-19 pandemic of people who have recovered from substance use disorder. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 39(2), 257-264.‏

Gender, employment, and continuous pandemic as predictors of alcohol and drug consumption during the COVID-19

Citation
Levy, I., Cohen-Louck, K., & Bonny-Noach, H. (2021). Gender, employment, and continuous pandemic as predictors of alcohol and drug consumption during the COVID-19. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 109029.‏

Alcohol and substance use prevention in Africa

Citation
Lucia M. Mupara, Roy Tapera, Morekwe Selemogwe-Matsetse, Johanne T. Kehumile, Lebogang Gaogane, Ellen Tsholofelo & Pretty Murambiwa (2021) Alcohol and substance use prevention in Africa: systematic scoping review, Journal of Substance Use, DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2021.1941356

Substance use continues to be a key public health concern in Africa. Despite this, there have been few reviews that have examined the current research on the subject. This study examines the existing research on the prevention of alcohol and substance use in Africa.

The specific objectives were to: 

  1. Identify drugs and substances used across Africa

Alcohol and Cannabis Use and the Developing Brain

Citation
Lees, B., Debenham, J., & Squeglia, L. M. (2021). Alcohol and Cannabis Use and the Developing Brain. Alcohol, 41(1).

Purpose of Review

Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used substances during adolescence and are typically initiated during this sensitive neurodevelopmental period.

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent literature focused on understanding how these substances affect the developing brain.

Findings

The effects of alcohol use include:

Review of Alternatives to Incarceration Efforts Worldwide

Citation
Diplomacy Lab Project 2010304, U.S. Department of State, Secretary’s Office of Global Partnerships and Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs and John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Publication Date

Substance use disorders are reoccurring chronic, often relapsing disease that affect the brain and should be treated within the public health arena similar to other diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. This understanding, however, does not easily find its way into public or social policy.

Evaluation of neurotrophic factors and education level as predictors of cognitive decline in alcohol use disorder

Citation
Requena-Ocaña, N., Araos, P., Flores, M. et al. Evaluation of neurotrophic factors and education level as predictors of cognitive decline in alcohol use disorder. Sci Rep 11, 15583 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95131-2
Publication Date
Abstract

Cognitive reserve (CR) is the capability of an individual to cope with a brain pathology through compensatory mechanisms developed through cognitive stimulation by mental and physical activity. Recently, it has been suggested that CR has a protective role against the initiation of substance use, substance consumption patterns and cognitive decline and can improve responses to treatment.

Social Determinants & Substance Use: A Perspective Beyond the Policy 'Silo' Pragmatics

Citation
Dalgarno Institute
Publication Date

Social Determinants & Substance Use: A Perspective Beyond the Policy 'Silo' Pragmatics -  This paper (synoptic version, peer reviewed and published in Journal of Global Drug Policy & Practice) is a review of and research into the social determinants in a 'First World' setting, not relating to a developing world context.

This is a refreshed version of the 2017 paper.

Attitudes towards consumption, sensation seeking and alcohol consumption. Model of partial mediation in Ecuadorian adolescents

Citation
Moreta-Herrera, R.; Mayorga-Lascano, M.; Reyes-Valenzuela, C. & Durán-Rodríguez, T. (2021). Actitudes y Consumo de alcohol: análisis de mediación parcial de la edad y búsqueda de sensaciones en adolescentes ecuatorianos. Revista Española de Drogodependencias. 46(2), 58.71.
Publication Date

Objective: To determine the mediated effect of sensation-seeking on the relationship between attitudes to alcohol consumption and consumption in a sample of adolescents from Ecuador. Method: Descriptive predictive and mediation study with the use of the Scale of Attitudes to consumption, the Brief Questionnaire of Search for Sensations and the Test of Identification of Disorders Related to Alcohol Consumption.

Periods of altered risk for non-fatal drug overdose

Citation
Keen, C., Kinner, S. A., Young, J. T., Snow, K., Zhao, B., Gan, W., & Slaunwhite, A. K. (2021). Periods of altered risk for non-fatal drug overdose: a self-controlled case series. The Lancet Public Health, 6(4), e249-e259. Chicago

The risk of an individual overdosing is influenced by a range of, often overlapping circumstances. Factors such as incarceration, mental and physical health conditions, and the treatments prescribed for these conditions can all affect the risk of overdose.

This study, published in The Lancet Public Health, aimed to: 

Reprint of: Biotechnologies and the future of opioid addiction treatments

Citation
Daniel Wolfe, Roxanne Saucier, Reprint of: Biotechnologies and the future of opioid addiction treatments, International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 94, 2021, 103273, ISSN 0955-3959, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103273.
Publication Date

Biotechnological treatment, including addiction treatment, is the way of the future. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies praise depot injections, agonist/antagonist implants, deep brain stimulation, and hapten conjugate vaccines as medicine's greatest chance for reducing illegal usage, reducing the danger of overdose and severe withdrawal, and preventing drug diversion to criminal markets.

Identifying content-based engagement patterns in a smoking cessation website and associations with user characteristics and cessation outcomes: a sequence and cluster analysis

Citation
Olga Perski, PhD, Noreen L Watson, PhD, Kristin E Mull, MS, Jonathan B Bricker, PhD, Identifying Content-Based Engagement Patterns in a Smoking Cessation Website and Associations With User Characteristics and Cessation Outcomes: A Sequence and Cluster Analysis, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 23, Issue 7, July 2021, Pages 1103–1112, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab008
Publication Date

Tobacco smoking is the greatest cause of sickness and early death worldwide, with 8 million people dying each year from a smoking-related condition. The use of pharmaceutical or behavioural assistance improves smokers' chances of quitting; nonetheless, the majority of smoking cessation efforts are unassisted.

Effects of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in South Africa

Citation
Gibbs N, Angus C, Dixon S, et al Effects of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in South Africa across different drinker groups and wealth quintiles: a modelling study BMJ Open 2021;11:e052879. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052879

Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol is a policy whereby a set price is introduced, below which a fixed volume of alcohol cannot be sold to the public. Several countries, including Scotland, Canada, certain states of the USA, Russia, Moldova, Ukraine and Uzbekistan, have adopted different forms of MUP.

The link between reducing pain medication, overdose and mental health crisis

Citation
Agnoli A, Xing G, Tancredi DJ, Magnan E, Jerant A, Fenton JJ. Association of Dose Tapering With Overdose or Mental Health Crisis Among Patients Prescribed Long-term Opioids. JAMA. 2021;326(5):411–419. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11013

In response to the concerning numbers of opioid-related deaths in the US, there has been a recent focus on opioid prescribing trends, which has shown an increase in opioid tapering among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy. However, there has also been an increase in opioid-related mortality.

The impact of COVID-19 on drug use and harm reduction programming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: a regional consultation of stakeholders and people who use drugs

Citation
Van Hout, M.C., Haddad, P. & Aaraj, E. The Impact of COVID-19 on Drug Use and Harm Reduction Programming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: a Regional Consultation of Stakeholders and People Who Use Drugs. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-021-00500-7
Publication Date

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified a pandemic on March 11, 2020, with early reports of the disease occurring in the Middle East and North African (MENA) area. On January 2021, the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (WHO-EMRO) reported 5,566,708 confirmed cases with 131,886 fatalities to date.

Changes in alcohol consumption patterns based on gender during COVID-19 confinement in Spain

Citation
Villanueva-Blasco, V. J., Villanueva Silvestre, V., Isorna, M., Motos, P., Blay, P., & Vázquez-Martínez, A. (2021). Changes in Alcohol Consumption Pattern Based on Gender during COVID-19 Confinement in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(15), 8028. doi:10.3390/ijerph18158028

Abstract

The goal of this study was to analyze the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption (frequency of consumption, average daily consumption, and risky consumption) before and during confinement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the adult population and based on gender.

Addressing long overdue social and structural determinants of the opioid overdose crisis: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Special Issue

This special issue addresses a rapidly growing area of research with a pressing public health need, the social structure of opioid use.

Specifically, this issue compiles original articles that apply theoretical and empirical frameworks to better understand structural conditions that form opioid use patterns.

Urdu translation and adaptation of the HIV stigma scale in Pakistani injectable drug users with HIV

Citation
Bint-e-Saif, S., & Shahzad, S. (2020). Urdu translation and adaptation of the HIV stigma scale in Pakistani injectable drug users with HIV. JPMA, 2019.
Publication Date

Abstract


Objective: To translate and adapt the human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale into Urdu language,
and to determine its psychometric properties.

Massive open online course for Brazilian healthcare providers working with substance use disorders: Curriculum design

Citation
Monteiro, E.P., Gomide, H.P. & Remor, E. Massive open online course for Brazilian healthcare providers working with substance use disorders: curriculum design. BMC Med Educ 20, 240 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02162-w
Publication Date

Abstract

Background:

Interpersonal and technical skills are required for the care of people living with substance use disorders. Considering the applicability and usability of online courses as continuing professional education initiatives, this study aimed to describe the content design process of an introductory-level healthcare-centered Massive Open Online Course (MOOC).

Gender disparities in opioid treatment progress in methadone versus counselling

Citation
Guerrero, E., Amaro, H., Kong, Y. et al. Gender disparities in opioid treatment progress in methadone versus counseling. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 52 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00389-4
Publication Date

The high dropout rate (75%) in opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment among women and racial/ethnic minorities in the United States necessitates a better knowledge of the factors that contribute to treatment success. While therapy and medication for OUD are considered the top standard of care in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, many people with OUD receive just counseling or methadone-only therapies.

High-dose buprenorphine induction in the emergency department for treatment of opioid use disorder

Citation
Herring AA, Vosooghi AA, Luftig J, et al. High-Dose Buprenorphine Induction in the Emergency Department for Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(7):e2117128. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17128
Publication Date

In response to the rising efficacy of the illicit opioid drug supply and often observed delays in access to follow-up therapy, emergency departments (EDs) occasionally utilize a high-dose buprenorphine induction method for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD). The objective of this study is to investigate the safety and tolerability of high-dose (>12 mg) buprenorphine induction for patients with OUD presenting to an ED.

Trends in use of e-cigarette device types and heated tobacco products from 2016 to 2020 in England

Citation
Tattan-Birch, H., Brown, J., Shahab, L. et al. Trends in use of e-cigarette device types and heated tobacco products from 2016 to 2020 in England. Sci Rep 11, 13203 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92617-x
Publication Date

During the past decade, heated aerosolized nicotine delivery systems (HANDS) —mainly e-cigarettes—have surpassed nicotine replacement therapy as the most utilized aids for stopping smoking in England.

Biochemical mechanisms associating alcohol use disorders with cancers

Citation
Rodriguez, F.D.; Coveñas, R. Biochemical Mechanisms Associating Alcohol Use Disorders with Cancers. Cancers 2021, 13, 3548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ cancers13143548
Publication Date
Abstract

The World Health Organization identifies alcohol as a cause of several neoplasias of the oropharynx cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, larynx, liver, or female breast. We review ethanol’s nonoxidative and oxidative metabolism and one-carbon metabolism that encompasses both redox and transfer reactions that influence crucial cell proliferation machinery.

Variation in brief treatment for substance use disorder: a qualitative investigation of four federally qualified health centres with SBIRT services

Citation
Watson, D.P., Staton, M.D., Dennis, M.L. et al. Variation in brief treatment for substance use disorder: a qualitative investigation of four federally qualified health centers with SBIRT services. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 58 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00381-y
Publication Date

Brief treatment (BT) or regular outpatient alcohol use or substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a key element of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model. It can be an effective, short-term, and low-cost treatment option for many people who misuse alcohol and drugs. Nevertheless, inconsistent BT implementation often costs similar to regular outpatient care.

Implementation of tobacco control measures in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, 2008–2020

Citation
Monshi, S.S., Ibrahim, J. Implementation of tobacco control measures in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, 2008–2020. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 16, 57 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00393-8
Publication Date

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist nations in reducing the demand and supply of tobacco. In 2020, 182 nations joined the FCTC, approving to implement the recommended tobacco control measures.